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Section edited by Luigi Buonaguro

The Immunovirology section focuses on translational research related to virology and immunity to virus-based diseases, with a particular interest in human oncogenic viruses.

Studies focused on the role of innate, as well as adaptive, immunity in the establishment, containment and/or progression of viral infections up to cancer, including vaccine and adjuvanting strategies, will be considered for publication. Classic immunology as well as more recent, less established "omics" approaches (genomics, proteomics, immunogenomics, pharmacogenomics) will also be considered.

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  1. Content type: Research

    Trimeric soluble forms of HIV gp140 envelope glycoproteins represent one of the closest molecular structures compared to native spikes present on intact virus particles. Trimeric soluble gp140 have been genera...

    Authors: Maria Luisa Visciano, Maria Tagliamonte, Guillaume Stewart-Jones, Leo Heyndrickx, Guido Vanham, Marianne Jansson, Anders Fomsgaard, Berit Grevstad, Meghna Ramaswamy, Franco M Buonaguro, Maria Lina Tornesello, Priscilla Biswas, Gabriella Scarlatti and Luigi Buonaguro

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2013 11:165

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  2. Content type: Research

    HCV is causing hundreds of cases yearly in Pakistan and has become a threat for Pakistani population. HCV E2 protein is a transmembrane protein involved in viral attachment and thus can serve as an important t...

    Authors: Sobia Idrees, Usman A Ashfaq and Saba Khaliq

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2013 11:105

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  3. Content type: Research

    The traditional smallpox vaccine, administered by scarification, was discontinued in the general population from 1980, because of the absence of new smallpox cases. However, the development of an effective pro...

    Authors: Sole Maria Pacchioni, Massimiliano Bissa, Carlo Zanotto, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Elena Illiano and Antonia Radaelli

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2013 11:95

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  4. Content type: Research

    Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16)-induced gynecological cancers, in particular cervical cancers, are found in many women worldwide. The HPV16 encoded oncoproteins E6 and E7 are tumor-specific targets for t...

    Authors: Mariette I E van Poelgeest, Marij J P Welters, Edith M G van Esch, Linda F M Stynenbosch, Gijs Kerpershoek, Els L van Persijn van Meerten, Muriel van den Hende, Margriet J G Löwik, Dorien M A Berends-van der Meer, Lorraine M Fathers, A Rob P M Valentijn, Jaap Oostendorp, Gert Jan Fleuren, Cornelis J M Melief, Gemma G Kenter and Sjoerd H van der Burg

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2013 11:88

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  5. Content type: Research

    HIV-infected patients display an increased and early incidence of osteopenia/osteoporosis. We investigated whether bone metabolism disorders in HIV-infected patients are related to immune hyperactivation and p...

    Authors: Lidia Gazzola, Giusi Maria Bellistri, Camilla Tincati, Valentina Ierardi, Alessia Savoldi, Angelo Del Sole, Luca Tagliabue, Antonella d’Arminio Monforte and Giulia Marchetti

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2013 11:51

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  6. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 infection generates numerous abnormalities in the B cell compartment which can be partly reversed by antiretroviral therapy. Our aim was to evaluate the effects that re-exposure to HIV antigens might hav...

    Authors: Anuska Llano, Jorge Carrillo, Beatriz Mothe, Lidia Ruiz, Silvia Marfil, Elisabet García, Eloísa Yuste, Víctor Sánchez, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco and Christian Brander

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2013 11:48

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  7. Content type: Research

    An immunoinformatics study was conducted to determine the highly conserved antigenic epitope regions of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes in the humoral immunity and CD4+ and CD8+ T cellular immu...

    Authors: Ping Huang, Shouyi Yu, Changyou Wu and Lijun Liang

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2013 11:47

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  8. Content type: Research

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by B-cell hyper-reactivity and the production of pathogenic anti-nuclear-directed auto-antibodies (Abs). B-cell ontogeny is part...

    Authors: Vincent Biajoux, Alexandre Bignon, Christelle Freitas, Valérie Martinez, Marcus Thelen, Guadalupe Lima, Juan Jakez-Ocampo, Dominique Emilie, Luis Llorente and Karl Balabanian

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:251

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  9. Content type: Research

    The use of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis (MS) may favour JC virus reactivation; this phenomenon is usually asymptomatic but can, albeit rarely, evolve into frank progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy ...

    Authors: Roberta Mancuso, Marina Saresella, Ambra Hernis, Ivana Marventano, Cristian Ricci, Simone Agostini, Marco Rovaris, Domenico Caputo and Mario Clerici

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:248

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  10. Content type: Research

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in maintaining immunological tolerance to self and foreign antigens. T cell receptors (TCR) reflect the composition and function of T cells. It is not u...

    Authors: Jiezuan Yang, Ping Yi, Li Wei, Zherong Xu, Yunbo Chen, Lingling Tang and Lanjuan Li

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:193

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  11. Content type: Research

    As Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has been known to follow Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) and other systemic infections; our objective was to describe differences in immune activation in post-infective CFS (PI-CFS) p...

    Authors: Gordon Broderick, Ben Z Katz, Henrique Fernandes, Mary Ann Fletcher, Nancy Klimas, Frederick A Smith, Maurice RG O’Gorman, Suzanne D Vernon and Renee Taylor

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:191

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  12. Content type: Research

    In China, high prevalence of HBV and HCV parallels with the growing epidemic of syphilis and HIV in the general population poses a great threat to blood safety. This study investigated the prevalence of serolo...

    Authors: Changqing Li, Xiaopu Xiao, Huimin Yin, Miao He, Jianping Li, Yudong Dai, Yongshui Fu, Jianmin Ge, Yonglin Yang, Yan Luan, Changzhou Lin, Hongxiang Zhao and Wuping Li

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:176

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  13. Content type: Review

    The relationship between Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection and immunosuppression is complex and multifaceted. Although HCV-related hepatocytolysis is classically interpreted as secondary to the attack by cytot...

    Authors: Anna Linda Zignego, Carlo Giannini, Laura Gragnani, Alessia Piluso and Elisa Fognani

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:158

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  14. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), a single stranded RNA virus, affects millions of people worldwide and leads to chronic infection characterized by chronic inflammation in the liver and in peripheral immune cells. Chro...

    Authors: Shashi Bala, Yaphet Tilahun, Odette Taha, Hawau Alao, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano and Gyongyi Szabo

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:151

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  15. Content type: Meeting report

    Europrise is a Network of Excellence supported by the European Commission within the 6th Framework programme from 2007 to 2012. The Network has involved over 50 institutions from 13 European countries together...

    Authors: Nicolas Ruffin, Marie Borggren, Zelda Euler, Fabio Fiorino, Katrijn Grupping, David Hallengärd, Aneele Javed, Kevin Mendonca, Charlotte Pollard, David Reinhart, Elisa Saba, Enas Sheik-Khalil, Annette Sköld, Serena Ziglio, Gabriella Scarlatti, Frances Gotch…

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:144

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  16. Content type: Research

    Claspin is a nuclear protein involved in DNA replication and damage response and is a key mediator for the S-phase checkpoint. Claspin expression is significantly high in several human solid tumors. Furthermor...

    Authors: Maria Benevolo, Antonio Musio, Amina Vocaturo, Maria Gabriella Donà, Francesca Rollo, Irene Terrenato, Mariantonia Carosi, Edoardo Pescarmona, Giuseppe Vocaturo and Marcella Mottolese

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:132

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  17. Content type: Research

    The immune system reconstitution in HIV-1- infected patients undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy is routinely evaluated by T-cell phenotyping, even though the infection also impairs the B-cell mediated ...

    Authors: Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Federico Serana, Marco Chiarini, Cinzia Zanotti, Alessandra Sottini, Daria Gotti, Carlo Torti, Luigi Caimi and Luisa Imberti

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:94

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  18. Content type: Research

    We have previously reported the induction of many interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) in PBMC collected from patients infected with HCV at various times after initiation of interferon-ribavirin treatment using ...

    Authors: Rahul Gupta, Sun Kim and Milton W Taylor

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:54

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  19. Content type: Research

    Recent studies of CH-C patients have demonstrated a strong association between IL28B CC genotype and sustained virologic response (SVR) after PEG-IFN/RBV treatment. We aimed to assess whether IL28B alleles rs1...

    Authors: Zobair M Younossi, Aybike Birerdinc, Mike Estep, Maria Stepanova, Arian Afendy and Ancha Baranova

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:25

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  20. Content type: Research

    A mobile health unit may be useful to follow up adult and pediatric patients on antiretroviral treatment and living in remote areas devoid of laboratory facilities. The study evaluated the use of the simplifie...

    Authors: François-Xavier Mbopi-Kéou, Bertrand Sagnia, Jeanne Ngogang, Fru F Angwafo III, Vittorio Colizzi, Luc Montagnier and Laurent Bélec

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:22

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  21. Content type: Research

    Transfusion transmitted infections create significant burden on health care system. Donor selection is of paramount importance because infected individuals serve as an asymptomatic reservoir and a potential so...

    Authors: Sobia Attaullah, Sanaullah Khan and Jabbar Khan

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:20

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  22. Content type: Research

    Currently, no data on the optimal time point after acute ischemic stroke (IS) at which high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level is most predictive of unfavorable outcome. We tested the hypothesis tha...

    Authors: Kuo-Ho Yeh, Tzu-Hsien Tsai, Han-Tan Chai, Steve Leu, Sheng-Ying Chung, Sarah Chua, Yung-Lung Chen, Hung-Sheng Lin, Chun-Man Yuen and Hon-Kan Yip

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:6

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  23. Content type: Research

    Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) represent an efficient strategy to present and deliver conformational antigens to the immune system, inducing both arms of the adaptive immune response. Moreover, their particulate ...

    Authors: Maria Luisa Visciano, Maria Tagliamonte, Maria Lina Tornesello, Franco M Buonaguro and Luigi Buonaguro

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:4

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  24. Content type: Review

    Oncolytic viruses refer to those that are able to eliminate malignancies by direct targeting and lysis of cancer cells, leaving non-cancerous tissues unharmed. Several oncolytic viruses including adenovirus st...

    Authors: Sandeep S Patil, Ivaylo Gentschev, Ingo Nolte, Gregory Ogilvie and Aladar A Szalay

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2012 10:3

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  25. Content type: Research

    HIV vaccine development must address the genetic diversity and plasticity of the virus that permits the presentation of diverse genetic forms to the immune system and subsequent escape from immune pressure. As...

    Authors: Jeffrey R Currier, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael and Mary A Marovich

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:212

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  26. Content type: Research

    The efficacy of the CTL component of a future HIV-1 vaccine will depend on the induction of responses with the most potent antiviral activity and broad HLA class I restriction. However, current HIV vaccine des...

    Authors: Beatriz Mothe, Anuska Llano, Javier Ibarrondo, Marcus Daniels, Cristina Miranda, Jennifer Zamarreño, Vanessa Bach, Rosario Zuniga, Susana Pérez-Álvarez, Christoph T Berger, Maria C Puertas, Javier Martinez-Picado, Morgane Rolland, Marilu Farfan, James J Szinger, William H Hildebrand…

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:208

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  27. Content type: Research

    HCV causes acute and chronic hepatitis which can eventually lead to permanent liver damage hepatocellular carcinoma and death. HCV glycoproteins play an important role in HCV entry by binding with CD81 recepto...

    Authors: Usman A Ashfaq, Muhammad Qasim, Muhammad Z Yousaf, Muhammad Tariq Awan and Shah Jahan

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:194

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  28. Content type: Research

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 is the most prevalent high-risk mucosal genotype. Virus-like-particle (VLP)-based immunogens developed recently have proven to be successful as prophylactic HPV vaccines, but are...

    Authors: Carlo Zanotto, Eleana Pozzi, Sole Pacchioni, Massimiliano Bissa, Carlo De Giuli Morghen and Antonia Radaelli

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:190

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  29. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis C virus is a major cause of chronic liver diseases which can lead to permanent liver damage, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. The presently available treatment with interferon plus ribavirin, has ...

    Authors: Usman A Ashfaq, Muhammad S Masoud, Zafar Nawaz and Sheikh Riazuddin

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:112

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  30. Content type: Research

    MHC class II transactivator CIITA inhibits the function of HTLV-2 Tax-2 viral transactivator and, consequently, the replication of the virus in infected cells. Moreover overexpression of the nuclear factor NF-...

    Authors: Chiara Orlandi, Greta Forlani, Giovanna Tosi and Roberto S Accolla

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:106

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  31. Content type: Commentary

    One of the most neglected areas of everyday clinical practice for HIV physicians is unexpectedly represented by CD4 T cell counts when used as an aid to clinical decisions. All who care for HIV patients believ...

    Authors: Andrea De Maria and Andrea Cossarizza

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:93

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  32. Content type: Research

    The HPV16 E7 protein is both a tumour-specific and a tumour-rejection antigen, the ideal target for developing therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of HPV16-associated cancer and its precursor lesions. E7, w...

    Authors: Linda Petrone, Maria G Ammendolia, Armando Cesolini, Stefano Caimi, Fabiana Superti, Colomba Giorgi and Paola Di Bonito

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:69

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  33. Content type: Research

    Interferons alpha (IFNα) are the cytokines most widely used in clinical medicine for the treatment of cancer and viral infections. Among the immunomodulatory activities possibly involved in their therapeutic e...

    Authors: Eleonora Aricò, Luciano Castiello, Francesca Urbani, Paola Rizza, Monica C Panelli, Ena Wang, Francesco M Marincola and Filippo Belardelli

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:67

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  34. Content type: Research

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulates hepatocyte proliferation, and also acts as an anti-apoptotic factor. Therefore, HGF is a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of fatal liver diseases. We performe...

    Authors: Akio Ido, Akihiro Moriuchi, Masatsugu Numata, Toshinori Murayama, Satoshi Teramukai, Hiroyuki Marusawa, Naohisa Yamaji, Hitoshi Setoyama, Il-Deok Kim, Tsutomu Chiba, Shuji Higuchi, Masayuki Yokode, Masanori Fukushima, Akira Shimizu and Hirohito Tsubouchi

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:55

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  35. Content type: Review

    Novel, exciting intervention strategies to prevent infection with HIV have been tested in the past year, and the field is rapidly evolving. EUROPRISE is a network of excellence sponsored by the European Commis...

    Authors: Sarah Brinckmann, Kelly da Costa, Marit J van Gils, David Hallengärd, Katja Klein, Luisa Madeira, Lara Mainetti, Paolo Palma, Katharina Raue, David Reinhart, Marc Reudelsterz, Nicolas Ruffin, Janna Seifried, Katrein Schäfer, Enas Sheik-Khalil, Annette Sköld…

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:40

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  36. Content type: Research

    Replicative phenotypic HIV resistance testing (rPRT) uses recombinant infectious virus to measure viral replication in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. Due to its high sensitivity of detection of viral mi...

    Authors: Jan Fehr, Tracy R Glass, Séverine Louvel, François Hamy, Hans H Hirsch, Viktor von Wyl, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Philippe Bürgisser, Matthias Cavassini, Christoph A Fux, Bernard Hirschel, Pietro Vernazza, Gladys Martinetti, Enos Bernasconi, Huldrych F Günthard…

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:14

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  37. Content type: Research

    It has been suggested that p300 participates in the regulation of a wide range of cell biological processes and mutation of p300 has been identified in certain types of human cancers. However, the expression d...

    Authors: Mei Li, Rong-Zhen Luo, Jie-Wei Chen, Yun Cao, Jia-Bin Lu, Jie-Hua He, Qiu-Liang Wu and Mu-Yan Cai

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:5

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  38. Content type: Research

    Lung cancers consist of four major types that and for clinical-pathological reasons are often divided into two broad categories: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All major ...

    Authors: Tonia Buonomo, Laura Carraresi, Mara Rossini and Rosanna Martinelli

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9:2

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  39. Content type: Research

    Proteomic-based discovery of biomarkers for disease has recently come under scrutiny for a variety of issues; one prominent issue is the lack of orthogonal validation for biomarkers following discovery. Valida...

    Authors: Nicole Haverland, Gwënaël Pottiez, Jayme Wiederin and Pawel Ciborowski

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2010 8:137

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  40. Content type: Review

    Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies demonstrated that chronic inflammation induced by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is crucial in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. The interaction between hepatocytes and ...

    Authors: Giuseppe Castello, Susan Costantini and Stefania Scala

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2010 8:109

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  41. Content type: Review

    EUROPRISE is a Network of Excellence sponsored from 2007 to 2011 by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Program. The Network encompasses a wide portfolio of activities ranging from an integrated r...

    Authors: Britta Wahren, Priscilla Biswas, Marie Borggren, Adam Coleman, Kelly Da Costa, Winni De Haes, Tessa Dieltjens, Stefania Dispinseri, Katrijn Grupping, David Hallengärd, Julia Hornig, Katja Klein, Lara Mainetti, Paolo Palma, Marc Reudelsterz, Janna Seifried…

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2010 8:72

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Translational Medicine 2010 8:82

  42. Content type: Research

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and play a crucial role in the host's innate immune response. Genetic variations in TLR genes may influence host-viral interactions a...

    Authors: Elisabetta Ricci, Sandro Malacrida, Marisa Zanchetta, Ilaria Mosconi, Marco Montagna, Carlo Giaquinto and Anita De Rossi

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2010 8:49

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  43. Content type: Research

    Around half million new cases of cervical cancer arise each year, making the development of an effective therapeutic vaccine against HPV a high priority. As the E6 and E7 oncoproteins are expressed in all HPV-...

    Authors: Antonia Radaelli, Eleana Pozzi, Sole Pacchioni, Carlo Zanotto and Carlo De Giuli Morghen

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2010 8:40

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  44. Content type: Research

    Current vaccines against HPVs are constituted of L1 protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) and they have been shown to protect against natural HPV16 and HPV18 infections and associated lesions...

    Authors: Nicolas Combelas, Emilie Saussereau, Maxime JJ Fleury, Tatiana Ribeiro, Julien Gaitan, Diego F Duarte-Forero, Pierre Coursaget and Antoine Touzé

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2010 8:28

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  45. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major risk factors for chronic hepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as for type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), which may furth...

    Authors: Luigi Buonaguro, Annacarmen Petrizzo, Marialina Tornesello, Maria Napolitano, Debora Martorelli, Giuseppe Castello, Gerardo Beneduce, Amalia De Renzo, Oreste Perrella, Luca Romagnoli, Vitor Sousa, Valli De Re, Riccardo Dolcetti and Franco M Buonaguro

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2010 8:18

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  46. Content type: Review

    HIV and HPV can both cause chronic infections and are acquired during sexual contact. HIV infection results in a progressive loss of CD4+ T cells that is associated with an increased prevalence of HPV infectio...

    Authors: Sjoerd H van der Burg and Joel M Palefsky

    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2009 7:108

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