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Combination Strategies

Section edited by Paolo A. Ascierto

This section aims to provide a focal point for research that highlights combination therapies, where two or more medications or therapies are strategically combined to improve the treatment of cancer, chronic infections, transplantation and potentially other complex and multi-factorial diseases.

Increasingly detailed understanding of the molecular basis driving complex disease has led to the identifications of new agents that target specific pathways. In some cases treatment of appropriately selected patients has led to striking clinical response, however both primary and secondary resistance mechanisms limited the success of many of these agents. It has become clear that combining or sequencing treatment modalities may enrich the communication between basic biological and immunological sciences and the clinical investigation arena.

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  1. Despite the recent progress in the treatment and outcome of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), immunotherapy has still significant limitations reporting a significant proportion of patients not benefiting fro...

    Authors: Carminia Maria Della Corte, Vincenza Ciaramella, Kavya Ramkumar, Giovanni Vicidomini, Alfonso Fiorelli, Valerio Nardone, Salvatore Cappabianca, Immacolata Cozzolino, Federica Zito Marino, Gaetano Di Guida, Qi Wang, Robert Cardnell, Carl Michael Gay, Davide Ciardiello, Erika Martinelli, Teresa Troiani…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:541
  2. Posttranslational protein modifications regulate essential cellular processes, including the immune cell activation. Despite known age-related alterations of the phenotype, composition and cytokine profiles of...

    Authors: Georgiana Toma, Eliza Karapetian, Chiara Massa, Dagmar Quandt and Barbara Seliger
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:539
  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system and a well-known functional receptor for the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into ho...

    Authors: Xiaoyan Zuo, Sixin Ren, He Zhang, Jianfei Tian, Ruinan Tian, Baoai Han, Hui Liu, Qian Dong, Zhiyong Wang, Yanfen Cui, Ruifang Niu and Fei Zhang
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:509
  4. The clinical observation showed a potential additive effect of anti-PD-1 agents and cetirizine in patients with advanced melanoma.

    Authors: Domenico Mallardo, Ester Simeone, Vito Vanella, Maria Grazia Vitale, Marco Palla, Luigi Scarpato, Miriam Paone, Teresa De Cristofaro, Valentina Borzillo, Alessio Cortellini, Francesca Sparano, Sandro Pignata, Francesco Fiore, Corrado Caracò, Piera Maiolino, Antonella Petrillo…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:436
  5. Nephrectomy is considered the backbone of managing patients with localized and selected metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The prognostic role of nephrectomy has been widely investigated with cytokines an...

    Authors: Sara Elena Rebuzzi, Alessio Signori, Giuseppe Luigi Banna, Annalice Gandini, Giuseppe Fornarini, Alessandra Damassi, Marco Maruzzo, Ugo De Giorgi, Umberto Basso, Silvia Chiellino, Luca Galli, Paolo Andrea Zucali, Emanuela Fantinel, Emanuele Naglieri, Giuseppe Procopio, Michele Milella…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:435
  6. The immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) combined with other therapeutic strategies have shown exciting results in various malignancies, and ICIs have now become the gold standard for current cancer treatment. ...

    Authors: Dong Shao, Yaping Chen, Hao Huang, Yingting Liu, Junjun Chen, Dawei Zhu, Xiao Zheng, Lujun Chen and Jingting Jiang
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:433
  7. The role of germline genetic factors in determining survival from cutaneous melanoma (CM) is not well understood.

    Authors: Mathias Seviiri, Richard A. Scolyer, D. Timothy Bishop, Julia A. Newton-Bishop, Mark M. Iles, Serigne N. Lo, Johnathan R. Stretch, Robyn P. M. Saw, Omgo E. Nieweg, Kerwin F. Shannon, Andrew J. Spillane, Scott D. Gordon, Catherine M. Olsen, David C. Whiteman, Maria Teresa Landi, John F. Thompson…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:403
  8. Advances in immune checkpoint and combination therapy have led to improvement in overall survival for patients with advanced melanoma. Improved understanding of the tumor, tumor microenvironment and tumor immu...

    Authors: Paolo A. Ascierto, Sanjiv S. Agarwala, Christian Blank, Corrado Caracò, Richard D. Carvajal, Marc S. Ernstoff, Soldano Ferrone, Bernard A. Fox, Thomas F. Gajewski, Claus Garbe, Jean-Jacques Grob, Omid Hamid, Michelle Krogsgaard, Roger S. Lo, Amanda W. Lund, Gabriele Madonna…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:391
  9. RET fusions are rare oncogenic drivers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While activating RET rearrangements are found in NSCLC patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genetic alterations ...

    Authors: Chunyue Wang, Zhenlong Zhang, Yulan Sun, Song Wang, Mengmeng Wu, Qiuxiang Ou, Yang Xu, Zhiming Chen, Yang Shao, Hong Liu and Peifeng Hou
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:390
  10. Although the anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor plus chemotherapy combination has been approved as the standard first-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer, a proportion of patients do not significa...

    Authors: Chaorui Wu, Yaopeng Qiu, Renyi Zhang, Xiaoqing Li, Huayuan Liang, Minghao Wang, Fengping Li, Mansheng Zhu, Gengtai Ye, Hao Liu, Guoxin Li and Liying Zhao
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:386
  11. Despite the increasing number of treatment options, reliable prognostic/predictive biomarkers are still missing for patients affected by metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC).

    Authors: Marzia Del Re, Stefania Crucitta, Federico Paolieri, Federico Cucchiara, Elena Verzoni, Francesco Bloise, Raffaele Ciampi, Chiara Mercinelli, Annalisa Capuano, Liberata Sportiello, Antonia Martinetti, Giuseppe Procopio, Luca Galli, Camillo Porta, Sergio Bracarda and Romano Danesi
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:371
  12. The effectiveness of MAPK pathway inhibitors (MAPKi) used to treat patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma is limited by a range of resistance mechanisms, including soluble TNF (solTNF)-mediated NF-kB signaling. so...

    Authors: Cindy A. Sander, Elizabeth A. Rush, Jian Shi, Lidia M. R. B. Arantes, Raymond J. Tesi, Mark A. Ross, Michael J. Calderon, Simon C. Watkins, John M. Kirkwood, Robert L. Ferris, Lisa H. Butterfield and Lazar Vujanovic
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:331
  13. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease characterized by high risk of relapse and development of resistance to different chemotherapy agents. Several targeted therapies have been investig...

    Authors: Stefania Cocco, Alessandra Leone, Maria Serena Roca, Rita Lombardi, Michela Piezzo, Roberta Caputo, Chiara Ciardiello, Susan Costantini, Francesca Bruzzese, Maria José Sisalli, Alfredo Budillon and Michelino De Laurentiis
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:290
  14. Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare orphan aggressive neoplasia with low survival rates. Among the other signaling pathways, ErbB receptors and Hh signaling are deregulated in MM. Thus, molecules involved in...

    Authors: Roberto Bei, Monica Benvenuto, Chiara Focaccetti, Sara Fazi, Marta Moretti, Daniela Nardozi, Valentina Angiolini, Sara Ciuffa, Loredana Cifaldi, Raffaele Carrano, Camilla Palumbo, Martino Tony Miele, Riccardo Bei, Giovanni Barillari, Vittorio Manzari, Enrico De Smaele…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:286
  15. Over the past decade, immunotherapy has become an increasingly fundamental modality in the treatment of cancer. The positive impact of immune checkpoint inhibition, especially anti-programmed death (PD)-1/PD-l...

    Authors: Paolo A. Ascierto, Antonio Avallone, Nina Bhardwaj, Carlo Bifulco, Sergio Bracarda, Joshua D. Brody, Luigi Buonaguro, Sandra Demaria, Leisha A. Emens, Robert L. Ferris, Jérôme Galon, Samir N. Khleif, Christopher A. Klebanoff, Tamara Laskowski, Ignacio Melero, Chrystal M. Paulos…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:257
  16. We hypothesized that a gender difference in clinical response may exist to adjuvant CTLA4 blockade with ipilimumab versus high-dose IFNα (HDI). We investigated differences in candidate immune biomarkers in the...

    Authors: Mariam Saad, Sandra J. Lee, Aik Choon Tan, Issam M. El Naqa, F. Stephen Hodi, Lisa H. Butterfield, William A. LaFramboise, Walter Storkus, Arivarasan D. Karunamurthy, Jose Conejo-Garcia, Patrick Hwu, Howard Streicher, Vernon K. Sondak, John M. Kirkwood and Ahmad A. Tarhini
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:253
  17. mTOR pathway is known to promote cancer malignancy and influence cancer immunity but is unknown for its role in immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) therapy.

    Authors: Lei Cheng, Yanan Wang, Lixin Qiu, Yuanyuan Chang, Haijiao Lu, Chenchen Liu, Bo Zhang, Yan Zhou, Hao Bai, Liwen Xiong, Hua Zhong, Wei Nie and Baohui Han
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:247
  18. Harnessing the effector mechanisms of the immune system to combat brain tumors with antigen specificity and memory has been in research and clinical testing for many years. Government grant mechanisms and non-...

    Authors: Christine E. Brown, Samantha Bucktrout, Lisa H. Butterfield, Olga Futer, Evanthia Galanis, Adilia Hormigo, Michael Lim, Hideho Okada, Robert Prins, Sara Siebel Marr and Kirk Tanner
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:236
  19. As part of the 2021 Immunotherapy Bridge virtual congress (December 1–2, Naples, Italy), the Great Debate sessions featured experts who were assigned counter opposing views on four important questions in immun...

    Authors: Paolo A. Ascierto, Lisa H. Butterfield, Olivera J. Finn, Andrew Futreal, Omid Hamid, Theresa LaVallee, Michael A. Postow, Igor Puzanov, Jeffrey Sosman, Bernard A. Fox and Patrick Hwu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:179
  20. EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is prone to leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) after Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment. Our previous study suggested that osimertinib plus bevacizumab was s...

    Authors: Yali Yi, Jing Cai, Peng Xu, Le Xiong, Zhiqin Lu, Zhimin Zeng and Anwen Liu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:122

    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:292

  21. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis, is up-regulated in several cancers, including metastatic melanoma (MM). The BRAF o...

    Authors: Valentina Audrito, Enrico Moiso, Filippo Ugolini, Vincenzo Gianluca Messana, Lorenzo Brandimarte, Ilaria Manfredonia, Simonetta Bianchi, Francesco De Logu, Romina Nassini, Anna Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Daniela Taverna, Daniela Massi and Silvia Deaglio
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:118
  22. Programmed cell death is an active and orderly form of cell death regulated by intracellular genes that plays an important role in the normal occurrence and development of the immune system, and pyroptosis has...

    Authors: Aibin Liu, Lin Shen, Na Li, Liangfang Shen and Zhanzhan Li
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:109
  23. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) have been used to predict therapeutic response in ...

    Authors: Xinke Zhang, A. Gari, Mei Li, Jierong Chen, Chunhua Qu, Lihong Zhang and Jiewei Chen
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:61
  24. Omics data, driven by rapid advances in laboratory techniques, have been generated very quickly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim is to use omics data to highlight the involvement of specific pathways, as ...

    Authors: Chiara Montaldo, Francesco Messina, Isabella Abbate, Manuela Antonioli, Veronica Bordoni, Alessandra Aiello, Fabiola Ciccosanti, Francesca Colavita, Chiara Farroni, Saeid Najafi Fard, Emanuela Giombini, Delia Goletti, Giulia Matusali, Gabriella Rozera, Martina Rueca, Alessandra Sacchi…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:501
  25. Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome (NTIS) can be detected in many critical illnesses. Recently, we demonstrated that this condition is frequently observed in COVID-19 patients too and it is correlated with the seve...

    Authors: Salvatore Sciacchitano, Carlo Capalbo, Christian Napoli, Andrea Negro, Luciano De Biase, Adriano Marcolongo, Paolo Anibaldi, Valentina Salvati, Lea Petrella, Luca Merlo, Daniela Alampi, Elisa Alessandri, Chiara Loffredo, Alessandra Ulivieri, Luca Lavra, Fiorenza Magi…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:491
  26. Overweight and obese patients with solid tumors receiving anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand-1(PD-L1) immune checkpoint inhibitors exhibit improved survival and higher risk of immune-related adverse ev...

    Authors: Rosaria De Filippi, Fortunato Morabito, Armando Santoro, Giovanni Tripepi, Francesco D’Alò, Luigi Rigacci, Francesca Ricci, Emanuela Morelli, Pier Luigi Zinzani and Antonio Pinto
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:489
  27. Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of granulomas, which involve the heart in up to 25% of patients. Cardiac sarcoidosis can lead to life threatening arrhythmias and heart fai...

    Authors: Jordana Kron, Thomas Crawford, Virginia Mihalick, Frank Bogun, Jennifer H. Jordan, Todd Koelling, Huzaefah Syed, Aamer Syed, Thomas Iden, Kelly Polly, Emily Federmann, Kirsta Bray, Sangeeta Lathkar-Pradhan, Shilpa Jasti, Lynda Rosenfeld, David Birnie…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:460
  28. Immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs) therapy showed limited efficacy in ovarian cancer management. Increasing evidence indicated that conventional and targeted therapies could affect tumor-associated immune resp...

    Authors: Jinyu Meng, Jin Peng, Jie Feng, Jochen Maurer, Xiao Li, Yan Li, Shu Yao, Ran Chu, Xiyu Pan, Junting Li, Ting Zhang, Lu Liu, Qing Zhang, Zeng Yuan, Hualei Bu, Kun Song…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:415
  29. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if HPV status serves as an independent predictor of early and late dysphagia outcomes when considered alongside standard patient characteristics and dose metrics for h...

    Authors: Xenia Ray, Whitney Sumner, Leisa Sutton, Parag Sanghvi, Ida Deichaite and Vitali Moiseenko
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:380
  30. Recently, convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was employed for severe or critically ill patients with coronavirus disease-2019. However, the benefits of CP for patients with different conditions are still in ...

    Authors: Li Huang, Che Zhang, Xihui Zhou, Zhou Zhao, Weiping Wang, Weidong Leng, Xiao Su and Qizhou Lian
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:365
  31. Severe immune-related Adverse Events (irAEs) develop in 10–27% of patients treated with Immune-Oncology (IO) [Powles (Lancet 391:748–757, 2018); Galsky (Lancet 395:1547–1557, 2020); Haanen (Ann Oncol 28:119–14...

    Authors: Marco Stellato, Giuseppe Procopio, Ugo De Giorgi, Marco Maruzzo, Davide Bimbatti, Alessia Mennitto, Andrea Sbrana, Giandomenico Roviello, Chiara Casadei, Pierangela Sepe, Sandro Pignata and Daniele Santini
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:328
  32. First-line therapy for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M HNSCC) has been revolutionized by the introduction of anti-checkpoint monoclonal antibodies, which have shown a significant i...

    Authors: Andrea Botticelli, Giulia Pomati, Alessio Cirillo, Giulia Mammone, Fabio Ciurluini, Bruna Cerbelli, Paolo Sciattella, Massimo Ralli, Umberto Romeo, Francesca De Felice, Carlo Catalano, Francesco Vullo, Marco Della Monaca, Sasan Amirhassankhani, Silverio Tomao, Valentino Valentini…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:303
  33. Advances in immune checkpoint therapy and targeted therapy have led to improvement in overall survival for patients with advanced melanoma. Single agent checkpoint PD-1 blockade and combination with BRAF/MEK t...

    Authors: Paolo A. Ascierto, Christian Blank, Reinhard Dummer, Marc S. Ernstoff, Soldano Ferrone, Bernard A. Fox, Thomas F. Gajewski, Claus Garbe, Patrick Hwu, Pawel Kalinski, Michelle Krogsgaard, Roger S. Lo, Jason J. Luke, Bart Neyns, Michael A. Postow, Sergio A. Quezada…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:278
  34. The favourable safety profile and the increasing confidence with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) might have boosted their prescription in frail patients with short life expectancies, who usually are not tr...

    Authors: Daniele Santini, Tea Zeppola, Marco Russano, Fabrizio Citarella, Cecilia Anesi, Sebastiano Buti, Marco Tucci, Alessandro Russo, Maria Chiara Sergi, Vincenzo Adamo, Luigia S. Stucci, Melissa Bersanelli, Giulia Mazzaschi, Francesco Spagnolo, Francesca Rastelli, Francesca Chiara Giorgi…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:270
  35. We aimed to develop a radiomic model based on pre-treatment computed tomography (CT) to predict the pathological complete response (pCR) in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant treatment and tried to ...

    Authors: Zhuokai Zhuang, Zongchao Liu, Juan Li, Xiaolin Wang, Peiyi Xie, Fei Xiong, Jiancong Hu, Xiaochun Meng, Meijin Huang, Yanhong Deng, Ping Lan, Huichuan Yu and Yanxin Luo
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:256
  36. Optimizing the therapeutic ratio for radiation therapy (RT) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is uniquely challenging owing to high rates of early and late toxicity involving nearby organs at ri...

    Authors: Whitney Sumner, Xenia Ray, Leisa Sutton, Daniel Rebibo, Francesco Marincola, Parag Sanghvi, Vitali Moiseenko and Ida Deichaite
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:212
  37. Aberrant PI3K signalling is implicated in trastuzumab resistance in HER2-positive gastric cancer (GC). The role of PI3K or MEK inhibitors in sensitising HER2-positive GCs to trastuzumab or in overcoming trastu...

    Authors: M. Janusz Mezynski, Angela M. Farrelly, Mattia Cremona, Aoife Carr, Clare Morgan, Julie Workman, Paul Armstrong, Jennifer McAuley, Stephen Madden, Joanna Fay, Katherine M. Sheehan, Elaine W. Kay, Ciara Holohan, Yasir Elamin, Shereen Rafee, Patrick G. Morris…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:184
  38. Sarcomas are rare, ubiquitous and heterogeneous tumors usually treated with surgery, chemotherapy, target therapy, and radiotherapy. However, 25–50% of patients experience local relapses and/or distant metasta...

    Authors: Ottavia Clemente, Alessandro Ottaiano, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Alessandra Bracigliano, Sabrina Lamia, Lucia Cannella, Antonio Pizzolorusso, Massimiliano Di Marzo, Mariachiara Santorsola, Annarosaria De Chiara, Flavio Fazioli and Salvatore Tafuto
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:173
  39. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in many kinds of cancer. In the current study, we evaluated the prognostic value of LDHA expression in non-small cell lung cancer...

    Authors: Yang Yang, Yu Chong, Mengyuan Chen, Wumin Dai, Xia Zhou, Yongling Ji, Guoqin Qiu and Xianghui Du
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:170
  40. Gut microbiota has been reported to be disrupted by cisplatin, as well as to modulate chemotherapy toxicity. However, the precise role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of cisplatin hepatotoxicity r...

    Authors: Shenhai Gong, Yinglin Feng, Yunong Zeng, Huanrui Zhang, Meiping Pan, Fangjie He, Rong Wu, Jingrui Chen, Jiuling Lu, Siyou Zhang, Songhua Yuan and Xia Chen
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:147
  41. The Great Debate session at the 2020 Melanoma Bridge virtual congress (December 3rd–5th, Italy) featured counterpoint views from experts on five specific controversial issues in melanoma. The debates considere...

    Authors: Paolo A. Ascierto, Michael B. Atkins, Alexander M. Eggermont, Jeffrey E. Gershenwald, Jean-Jacques Grob, Omid Hamid, Vernon K. Sondak, Jeffrey A. Sosman, Hussein A. Tawbi, Jeffrey S. Weber, Corrado Caracò, Iman Osman and Igor Puzanov
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:142
  42. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has created unique challenges to healthcare systems throughout the world. Ensuring subjects’ safety is mandatory especially in oncology, in consideration of ...

    Authors: Maria Antonietta Isgrò, Maria Grazia Vitale, Egidio Celentano, Flavia Nocerino, Giuseppe Porciello, Marcello Curvietto, Domenico Mallardo, Concetta Montagnese, Luigi Russo, Nicoletta Zanaletti, Antonio Avallone, Matilde Pensabene, Michelino De Laurentiis, Sara Centonze, Sandro Pignata, Lucia Cannella…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:132
  43. The response to immunotherapy can be impaired by several factors including external intervention such as drug interactions with immune system. We aimed to examine the immunomodulatory action of opioids, since ...

    Authors: Andrea Botticelli, Alessio Cirillo, Giulia Pomati, Bruna Cerbelli, Simone Scagnoli, Michela Roberto, Alain Gelibter, Giulia Mammone, Maria Letizia Calandrella, Edoardo Cerbelli, Francesca Romana Di Pietro, Federica De Galitiis, Gaetano Lanzetta, Enrico Cortesi, Silvia Mezi and Paolo Marchetti
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:119

    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Journal of Translational Medicine 2022 20:165

    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:160

  44. Exosomes are nanoparticle sized (100 ± 50 nm) extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that play important roles in cell-to-cell communication. They do this by utilizing their natural ability to shuttle signaling molecul...

    Authors: Michael J. Gonzalez, Mercedes F. Kweh, Pier Mario Biava, Jose Olalde, Alondra P. Toro, Pascal J. Goldschmidt-Clermont and Ian A. White
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:103

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