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Disease Biomarkers

Section edited by Xiangdong Wang and Hao Fang

The Disease Biomarkers section aims to bridge the identification and validation of discovered gene or protein-based, network or dynamic network biomarkers with human diseases, patient phenotypes, or clinical applications, and accelerate the development of human disease-specific biomarkers for the early diagnosis, monitoring, evaluation, and prediction of diseases. Conditions including cancers, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases will be the focus of study. This section will promote the innovation and development of disease-specific biomarkers by integrating multidisciplinary aspects of science.

Studies considered for publication include those regarding the development of advanced biotechnologies for biomarker discovery and development, identifying biomarkers associated with the early detection of diseases, monitoring of disease severity and duration as well as patient responses to therapies, prediction of patient outcomes and the evaluation, regulation and ethics of disease biomarkers.

Featured articles

Microfluidic devices for neutrophil chemotaxis studies

Review | Wenjie Zhao et al

Plasma proteomic analysis of autoimmune hepatitis in an improved AIH mouse model

Research | Han Wang et al

Multi-omic serum biomarkers for prognosis of disease progression in prostate cancer

Research | Michael A. Kiebish et al

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  1. There continues to be a great need for better biomarkers and host-directed treatment targets for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Alterations in phospholipid metabolism may constitute a source of small mole...

    Authors: Haroon Arshad, Juan Carlos López Alfonso, Raimo Franke, Katina Michaelis, Leonardo Araujo, Aamna Habib, Yuliya Zboromyrska, Eva Lücke, Emilia Strungaru, Manas K. Akmatov, Haralampos Hatzikirou, Michael Meyer-Hermann, Astrid Petersmann, Matthias Nauck, Mark Brönstrup, Ursula Bilitewski…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:365
  2. Growing evidence has demonstrated immune reactivity as a confirmed important carcinogenesis and therapy efficacy for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Aquaporin 9 (AQP9) is involved in many immune-relat...

    Authors: Wen-Hao Xu, Shen-Nan Shi, Yue Xu, Jun Wang, Hong-Kai Wang, Da-Long Cao, Guo-Hai Shi, Yuan-Yuan Qu, Hai-Liang Zhang and Ding-Wei Ye
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:363
  3. Emerging evidence shows that microRNA-130 (miRNA-130) family may be useful as prognostic biomarkers in cancer. However, there is no confirmation in an independent validation study. The aim of this study was to...

    Authors: Zhen Peng, Fujiao Duan, Jingjing Yin, Yajing Feng, Zhongyu Yang and Jia Shang
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:347
  4. Noninvasive prognostic biomarkers are needed for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with different histological types to identify cases with poor survival. Here, we investigated the prognosti...

    Authors: Chao Liu, Wang Jing, Ning An, Aijie Li, Weiwei Yan, Hui Zhu and Jinming Yu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:344
  5. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers due to their structural stability and distinct expression profile in various cancers. We wanted to explore the miRNA expression in benign breast tissue and breast ca...

    Authors: Line Moi, Tonje Braaten, Khalid Al-Shibli, Eiliv Lund and Lill-Tove Rasmussen Busund
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:334
  6. Brain metastases (BM) are the most common intracranial tumors. 2–14% of BM patients present with unknown primary site despite intensive evaluations. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a 90-gene exp...

    Authors: Yulong Zheng, Yongfeng Ding, Qifeng Wang, Yifeng Sun, Xiaodong Teng, Qiqi Gao, Weixiang Zhong, Xiaofeng Lou, Cheng Xiao, Chengshu Chen, Qinghua Xu and Nong Xu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:331
  7. DNA methylation can regulate the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the development of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). The present study aimed to identify methylation-driven lncRNAs and mRNAs as biomarkers i...

    Authors: Rui Li, Yi-E Yang, Yun-Hong Yin, Meng-Yu Zhang, Hao Li and Yi-Qing Qu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:324
  8. Advances in microRNAs (miRNAs) biomarkers have generated disease markers with potential clinical values. However, none of these published results have been applied in clinic until today. The main reason could ...

    Authors: Yanqin Niu, Sijian Xia, Mingyang Su, Quanjin Dang, Kang Kang, Li Li and Deming Gou
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:316
  9. Conventional clinical biomarkers cannot accurately differentiate indolent from aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). We investigated the usefulness of a biomarker panel measured exclusively in biofluids for assess...

    Authors: Xavier Ruiz-Plazas, Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Marta Alves, Antonio Altuna-Coy, Javier Lozano-Bartolomé, Manel Portero-Otin, Joan Francesc García-Fontgivell, Salomé Martínez-González, José Segarra and Matilde R. Chacón
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:307
  10. Annexins are involved in vesicle trafficking, cell proliferation and apoptosis, but their functional mechanisms in ovarian cancer remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed Annexins in ovarian cancer using dif...

    Authors: Rui Gou, Liancheng Zhu, Mingjun Zheng, Qian Guo, Yuexin Hu, Xiao Li, Juanjuan Liu and Bei Lin
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:275
  11. Numerous evidence has suggested that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) acts an important role in tumor biology. This study focuses on the identification of novel prognostic lncRNA biomarkers predicting tumor recurr...

    Authors: Fangyao Chen, Zhe Li, Changyu Deng and Hong Yan
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:299
  12. Perrault syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by the association of sensorineural hearing impairment and ovarian dysgenesis in females, whereas males have only hearing impairme...

    Authors: María Domínguez-Ruiz, Alberto García-Martínez, Marc Corral-Juan, Ángel I. Pérez-Álvarez, Ana M. Plasencia, Manuela Villamar, Miguel A. Moreno-Pelayo, Antoni Matilla-Dueñas, Manuel Menéndez-González and Ignacio del Castillo
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:290
  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the second most deadly cancer with late presentation and limited treatment options, highlighting an urgent need to better understand HCC to facilitate the identification of early-st...

    Authors: Yu Jin, Wai Yeow Lee, Soo Ting Toh, Chandana Tennakoon, Han Chong Toh, Pierce Kah-Hoe Chow, Alexander Y.-F. Chung, Samuel S. Chong, London L.-P.-J. Ooi, Wing-Kin Sung and Caroline G.-L. Lee
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:273
  14. Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder mainly characterized by exocrine gland injury. Costimulatory molecules play an important role in immune-regulatory networks. Although B7 family costim...

    Authors: Ping Li, Ying Yang, Yi Jin, Rui Zhao, Chen Dong, Wenjie Zheng, Tianyi Zhang, Jing Li and Zhifeng Gu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:268
  15. Noninvasive and effective methods of early diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) are underexplored. Inflammation is known to play an important role in the tumor microenvironment of CRC. Therefore, the aim of th...

    Authors: Dan Wang, Weitang Yuan, Yaping Wang, Qian Wu, Li Yang, Feng Li, Xinfeng Chen, Zhen Zhang, Weina Yu, Nomathamsanqa Resegofetse Maimela, Ling Cao, Dong Wang, Junxia Wang, Zhenqiang Sun, Jinbo Liu and Yi Zhang
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:253

    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Translational Medicine 2021 19:435

  16. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been associated with advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Our aim was to ...

    Authors: Teresa Aldámiz-Echevarría, Salvador Resino, José M. Bellón, María A. Jiménez-Sousa, Pilar Miralles, Luz M. Medrano, Ana Carrero, Cristina Díez, Leire Pérez-Latorre, Chiara Fanciulli, Pilar Garcia-Broncano and Juan Berenguer
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:244
  17. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine, an immunosuppressive metabolite involved in T regulatory cell differentiation. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is expressed in many...

    Authors: Concetta Elisa Onesti, François Boemer, Claire Josse, Stephane Leduc, Vincent Bours and Guy Jerusalem
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:239
  18. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a universal chronic disease in China. The balance of the gut microbiome is highly crucial for a healthy human body, especially for the immune system. However, the relationship b...

    Authors: Yang Li, Xinhuan Su, Lei Zhang, Yanwei Liu, Min Shi, Chenxiao Lv, Ying Gao, Dongmei Xu and Zunsong Wang
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:228
  19. Lynch syndrome (LS) is a highly penetrant inherited cancer predisposition syndrome, characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance and germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Despite several genetic ...

    Authors: Amira Jaballah-Gabteni, Haifa Tounsi, Maria Kabbage, Yosr Hamdi, Sahar Elouej, Ines Ben Ayed, Mouna Medhioub, Moufida Mahmoudi, Hamza Dallali, Hamza Yaiche, Nadia Ben Jemii, Afifa Maaloul, Najla Mezghani, Sonia Abdelhak, Lamine Hamzaoui, Mousaddak Azzouz…
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:212
  20. Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults with a poor prognosis. ARL3 is a member of the ARF family, and plays a key role in ciliary function and lipid-modified protein trafficking. ARL...

    Authors: Yulin Wang, Weijiang Zhao, Xin Liu, Gefei Guan and Minghua Zhuang
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:210
  21. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Current systematic methods for diagnosing have inherent limitations so development of a minimally-invasive diagnosis, b...

    Authors: Berta Roman-Canal, Jordi Tarragona, Cristian Pablo Moiola, Sònia Gatius, Sarah Bonnin, Maria Ruiz-Miró, José Enrique Sierra, Maria Rufas, Esperanza González, José M. Porcel, Antonio Gil-Moreno, Juan M. Falcón-Pérez, Julia Ponomarenko, Xavier Matias-Guiu and Eva Colas
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:208
  22. Due to the phenotypic and molecular diversity of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), it is still a challenge to determine patients’ prognosis. We aim to identify new prognostic markers for resected HCC patients.

    Authors: Gui-Qi Zhu, Yi Yang, Er-Bao Chen, Biao Wang, Kun Xiao, Shi-Ming Shi, Zheng-Jun Zhou, Shao-Lai Zhou, Zheng Wang, Ying-Hong Shi, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou, Tian-Shu Liu and Zhi Dai
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:203
  23. Platelets not only contribute to hemostasis but also to the regulation of inflammatory reactions and cancer pathogenesis. We hypothesized that blood platelet count would be associated with systemic inflammatio...

    Authors: Juha P. Väyrynen, Sara A. Väyrynen, Päivi Sirniö, Ilkka Minkkinen, Kai Klintrup, Toni Karhu, Jyrki Mäkelä, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Tuomo J. Karttunen, Anne Tuomisto and Markus J. Mäkinen
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:199
  24. Early diagnosis is critical to reduce the mortality caused by nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are dysregulated and play important roles in carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study aimed to iden...

    Authors: Wen Wen, Shi-Juan Mai, Huan-Xin Lin, Mei-Yin Zhang, Jia-Ling Huang, Xin Hua, Chao Lin, Zhi-Qing Long, Zi-Jian Lu, Xiao-Qing Sun, Sai-Lan Liu, Qi Yang, Qian Zhu, Hui-Yun Wang and Ling Guo
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:186
  25. SWATH-MS has emerged as the strategy of choice for biomarker discovery due to the proteome coverage achieved in acquisition and provision to re-interrogate the data. However, in quantitative analysis using SWA...

    Authors: Mythreyi Narasimhan, Sadhana Kannan, Aakash Chawade, Atanu Bhattacharjee and Rukmini Govekar
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:184
  26. Prostate cancer is an extremely heterogeneous disease. Despite being clinically similar, some tumours are more likely to recur after surgery compared to others. Distinguishing those that need adjuvant or salva...

    Authors: C. Hoey, M. Ahmed, A. Fotouhi Ghiam, D. Vesprini, X. Huang, K. Commisso, A. Commisso, J. Ray, E. Fokas, D. A. Loblaw, H. H. He and S. K. Liu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:173
  27. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating disease with few treatment options. Progress towards new therapies requires validated disease biomarkers, but there is no consensus on which fluid-based me...

    Authors: William R. Swindell, Colin P. S. Kruse, Edward O. List, Darlene E. Berryman and John J. Kopchick
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:170
  28. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease in terms of genetic basis, clinical, biological and prognostic, and is a malignant clonal disease of leukemia stem cells (LSCs). Nearly half of adult AML...

    Authors: Ying Song, Weilong Zhang, Xue He, Xiaoni Liu, Ping Yang, Jing Wang, Kai Hu, Weiyou Liu, Xiuru Zhang, Hongmei Jing and Xiaoliang Yuan
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:166
  29. Translational medicine (TM) is an emerging domain that aims to facilitate medical or biological advances efficiently from the scientist to the clinician. Central to the TM vision is to narrow the gap between b...

    Authors: Laura Bravo-Merodio, John A. Williams, Georgios V. Gkoutos and Animesh Acharjee
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:155
  30. The high mortality of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) emphasizes the necessity of identifying a robust and reliable prognostic signature for NSCLC patients. This study aimed to identify and va...

    Authors: Shuguang Zuo, Min Wei, Hailin Zhang, Anxian Chen, Junhua Wu, Jiwu Wei and Jie Dong
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:152
  31. The available prognostic scoring systems for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) have limitations that restrict their clinical value. The aim of this study was to develop a simple model (score) that could rapidly ...

    Authors: Wandong Hong, Keith D. Lillemoe, Shuang Pan, Vincent Zimmer, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Simon Stock, Maddalena Zippi, Chao Wang and Mengtao Zhou
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:146
  32. The distant metastasis of cancer cells is a risk factor for tumor lethality and poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Increased SOX9 expression has been associated with clinical stage and po...

    Authors: Jing-Qiang Huang, Fa-Kai Wei, Xiu-Li Xu, Shi-Xing Ye, Jun-Wei Song, Pei-Kun Ding, Jing Zhu, He-Feng Li, Xin-Ping Luo, Hui Gong, Li Su, Lin Yang and Li-Yun Gong
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:143
  33. Serum GP73 is a useful biomarker in assessing hepatic fibrosis degree. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of serum GP73 level for posthepatectomy short-term outcomes in hepatocellular c...

    Authors: Meng-yun Ke, Xiao-ning Wu, Yao Zhang, Saisai Wang, Yi Lv and Jian Dong
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:140
  34. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and is associated with adverse outcomes. The study aimed to identify a miRNA signature for the early diagnosis of post-A...

    Authors: Pei-Chun Fan, Chia-Chun Chen, Chen-Ching Peng, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Chia-Hung Yang, Chi Yang, Lichieh Julie Chu, Yung-Chang Chen, Chih-Wei Yang, Yu-Sun Chang and Pao-Hsien Chu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:139
  35. While prostate cancer can often manifest as an indolent disease, the development of locally-advanced or metastatic disease can cause significant morbidity or mortality. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms cont...

    Authors: Aruz Mesci, Fabrice Lucien, Xiaoyong Huang, Eric H. Wang, David Shin, Michelle Meringer, Christianne Hoey, Jessica Ray, Paul C. Boutros, Hon S. Leong and Stanley K. Liu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:125
  36. Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) based on cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) has rapidly been applied into clinic. However, the reliability of this method largely depends on the concentration of cffDNA in the m...

    Authors: Ping Hu, Dong Liang, Yangyi Chen, Ying Lin, Fengchang Qiao, Hang Li, Ting Wang, Chunfang Peng, Donghong Luo, Hailiang Liu and Zhengfeng Xu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:124
  37. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been classified as a disease subgroup defined by the lack of expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as the absence of the human epidermal growth fact...

    Authors: Wijden Mahfoudh, Inchirah Bettaieb, Randa Ghedira, Kaouther Snoussi, Nadia Bouzid, Zahra Klayech, Sallouha Gabbouj, Yassmine Remadi, Elham Hassen, Noureddine Bouaouina and Abdelfateh Zakhama
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:123
  38. Previous studies have shown that zinc-finger CCHC-type containing 13 (ZCCHC13) is located in an imprinted gene cluster in the X-inactivation centre, but few published studies have provided evidence of its expr...

    Authors: Zhiming Li, Zhi Li, Linjun Wang, Chen Long, Zaozao Zheng and Xuan Zhuang
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:108
  39. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous malignancy with various outcomes, and therefore needs better risk stratification tools to help select optimal therapeutic options.

    Authors: Huihui Zhang, Ninghan Zhang, Rong Wang, Tingting Shao, Yuan Feng, Yao Yao, Qingyun Wu, Shengyun Zhu, Jiang Cao, Huanxin Zhang, Zhenyu Li, Xuejiao Liu, Mingshan Niu and Kailin Xu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:106
  40. Leukemia stem cell (LSC)-enriched genes have been shown to be highly prognostic in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the prognostic value of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) that are repressed early in LSC r...

    Authors: Zi-jun Xu, Ji-chun Ma, Jing-dong Zhou, Xiang-mei Wen, Dong-ming Yao, Wei Zhang, Run-bi Ji, De-hong Wu, Li-juan Tang, Zhao-qun Deng, Jun Qian and Jiang Lin
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:102
  41. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common oral and maxillofacial malignant tumor with high rates of metastasis and mortality. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a type of non-coding RNA, are involved in the devel...

    Authors: Wen Su, Shuai Sun, Feng Wang, Yuehong Shen and Hongyu Yang
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:76
  42. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-bound vesicles which play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. Their molecular cargo analysis is presented as a new source for biomarker detection, a...

    Authors: N. García-Romero, R. Madurga, G. Rackov, I. Palacín-Aliana, R. Núñez-Torres, A. Asensi-Puig, J. Carrión-Navarro, S. Esteban-Rubio, H. Peinado, A. González-Neira, V. González-Rumayor, C. Belda-Iniesta and A. Ayuso-Sacido
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:75
  43. CEA, CYFRA21-1 and NSE are tumor markers used for monitoring the response to chemotherapy in advanced adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small-cell lung cancer, respectively. Their role in cancer immu...

    Authors: M. G. Dal Bello, R. A. Filiberti, A. Alama, A. M. Orengo, M. Mussap, S. Coco, I. Vanni, S. Boccardo, E. Rijavec, C. Genova, F. Biello, G. Barletta, G. Rossi, M. Tagliamento, C. Maggioni and F. Grossi
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:74
  44. Currently, pathological examination of gastroscopy biopsy specimens is the gold standard for gastric cancer (GC) diagnosis. However, it has a false-negative rate of 10–20% due to inaccurate sampling locations ...

    Authors: Haidan Yan, Meifeng Li, Longlong Cao, Haifeng Chen, Hungming Lai, Qingzhou Guan, Huxing Chen, Wenbin Zhou, Baotong Zheng, Zheng Guo and Chaohui Zheng
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:63
  45. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the world. Emerging evidence has shown that urinary mRNAs may serve as early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of DKD...

    Authors: Le-Ting Zhou, Lin-Li Lv, Shen Qiu, Qing Yin, Zuo-Lin Li, Tao-Tao Tang, Li-Hua Ni, Ye Feng, Bin Wang, Kun-Ling Ma and Bi-Cheng Liu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:59
  46. Inflammation and demyelination are the main processes in multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, to date, blood biomarkers of inflammation are lacking. TWEAK, a transmembrane protein that belongs to the TNF ligand f...

    Authors: Adil Maarouf, Delphine Stephan, Marie-Pierre Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Jean Pelletier, Bertrand Audoin, Michel Khrestchatisky and Sophie Desplat-Jégo
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:51
  47. Recently, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been reported to be microRNA sponges and play essential roles in cancer development. This study aimed to evaluate whether circulating circRNAs could be used as diagnosti...

    Authors: Xiao-Xia Liu, Yi-E Yang, Xiao Liu, Meng-Yu Zhang, Rui Li, Yun-Hong Yin and Yi-Qing Qu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:50
  48. Although previous prevalence studies of DED were reported from some countries worldwide, national data are unavailable in China. We aimed to conduct an up-to-date national survey on the prevalence of DED in Ch...

    Authors: Donghui Yu, Qinglong Deng, Jiwei Wang, Xing Chang, Shuxiao Wang, Renren Yang, Jinming Yu and Jing Yu
    Citation: Journal of Translational Medicine 2019 17:46

Annual Journal Metrics

  • 2022 Citation Impact
    7.4 - 2-year Impact Factor
    6.9 - 5-year Impact Factor
    1.458 - SNIP (Source Normalized Impact per Paper)
    1.544 - SJR (SCImago Journal Rank)

    2023 Speed
    9 days submission to first editorial decision for all manuscripts (Median)
    86 days submission to accept (Median)

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