Trichoupolou A, Kouris-Blazos A, Wahlqvist ML, Gnardellis C, Lagiou P, Polychronopoulos E, et al. Diet and overall survival in elderly people. Br Med J. 1995;311:1457–60.
De Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I, Delaye J, Mamelle N. Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1999;99:779–85.
Kouris-Blazos A, Gnardellis C, Wahlqvist ML, Trichopoulos D, Lukito W, Trichopoulou A. Are the advantages of the Mediterranean diet transferable to other populations? A cohort study in Melbourne, Australia. Br J Nutr. 1999;82:57–61.
Lasheras C, Fernandez S, Patterson AM. Mediterranean diet and age with respect to overall survival in institutionalized, nonsmoking elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:987–92.
Haveman-Nies A, de Groot LPGM, Burema J, Cruz JAA, Osler M, van Staveren WA. Dietary quality and lifestyle factors in relation to 10-year mortality in older Europeans. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:962–8.
Martínez-González MA, Fernández-Jarne E, Serrano-Mártinez M, Marti A, Martinez JA, Martín-Moreno JM. Mediterranean diet and reduction in the risk of a first acute myocardial infarction: an operational healthy dietary score. Eur J Nutr. 2002;41:153–60.
Trichopoulou A, Costacou T, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2599–608.
Knoops KTB, de Groot LCPGM, Kromhout D, Perria AE, Moreiras-Varela O, Menotti A, et al. Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women. JAMA. 2004;292:1433–9.
Trichopoulou A, Orfanos P, Norat T, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Ocké MC, Peeters PH, et al. Modified Mediterranean diet and survival: EPIC-elderly prospective cohort study. Br Med J. 2005;330:991.
Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Sandin S, Lagiou A, Mucci L, Wolk A, et al. Mediterranean dietary pattern and mortality among young women: a cohort study in Sweden. Br J Nutr. 2006;96:384–92.
Trichopoulou A, Bamia C, Norat T, Overvad K, Schmidt EB, Tjønneland A, et al. Modified Mediterranean diet and survival after myocardial infarction: the EPIC-Elderly study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2007;22:871–81.
Mitrou PN, Kipnis V, Thiébaut ACM, Reedy J, Subar AF, Wirfālt E, et al. Mediterranean dietary pattern and prediction of all-cause mortality in a US population. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2461–8.
Fung TF, Rexrode KM, Mantzoros CS, Manson JE, Willet WC, Hu FB. Mediterranean diet and incidence of and mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Circulation. 2009;119:1093–100.
Buckland G, González CA, Agudo A, Vilardell M, Berenguer A, Amiano P, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170:1518–29.
Sjögren P, Becker W, Warensjö E, Olsson E, Byberg L, Gustafsson IB, et al. Mediterranean and carbohydrate-restricted diets and mortality among elderly men: a cohort study in Sweden. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:967–74.
Buckland G, Agudo A, Travier N, Huerta JM, Cirera L, Tormo MJ, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduces mortality in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). Br J Nutr. 2011;106:1581–91.
Gardener H, Wright CB, Gu Y, Demmer RT, Boden-Albala B, Elkind MSV, et al. Mediterranean-style diet and risk of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death: the Northern Manhattan Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:1458–64.
Van den Brandt PA. The impact of a Mediterranean diet and healthy lifestyle on premature mortality in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:913–20.
Agnoli C, Krogh V, Grioni S, Sieri S, Palli D, Masala G, et al. A priori-defined dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk of stroke in a large Italian cohort. J Nutr. 2011;141:1552–8.
Martínez-González MA, Guillén-Grima F, De Irala J, Ruíz-Canela M, Bes-Rastrollo M, Beunza JJ, et al. The Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduction in premature mortality among middle-aged adults. J Nutr. 2012;142:1672–8.
McNaughton SA, Bates CJ, Mishra GD. Diet quality is associated with all-cause mortality in adults aged 65 years and older. J Nutr. 2012;142:320–5.
Dills V, Katsoulis M, Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Naska A, Trichopoulou A. Mediterranean diet and CHD: the Greek European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:699–709.
Misirli G, Benetou V, Lagiou P, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D, Trichopoulou A. Relation of the traditional Mediterranean diet to cerebrovascular disease in a Mediterranean population. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176:1185–92.
Hoevenaar-Blom MP, Nooyens ACJ, Kromhout D, Spijkerman AMW, Beulens JWJ, van der Schouw YT, et al. Mediterranean style diet and 12-year incidence of cardiovascular diseases: the EPIC-NL cohort study. PLoS One. 2012;7:e45458.
Sofi F, Macchi C, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A. Mediterranean diet and health status: an updated meta-analysis and a proposal for a literature-based adherence score. Publ Health Nutr. 2014;17:2769–82.
Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Covas MI, Corella D, Arós F, Gómez-Garcia E, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. NEJM. 2013;368:1279–90.
Tognon G, Lissner L, Sæbye D, Walker KZ, Heitmann BL. The Mediterranean diet in relation to mortality and CVD: a Danish cohort study. Br J Nutr. 2014;111:151–9.
Lopez-Garcia E, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Li TY, Fung TT, Li S, Willet WC, et al. The Mediterranean-style dietary pattern and mortality among men and women with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99:172–80.
Tuttolomondo A, Casuccio A, Buttà C, Pecoraro R, Di Raimondo D, Della Corte V, et al. Mediterranean diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: relationships between Mediterranean diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index. Atherosclerosis. 2015;243:260–7.
Lau KK, Wong YK, Chan YH, Li OY, Lee PYS, Yuen GG, et al. Mediterranean-style diet is associated with reduced blood pressure variability and subsequent stroke risk in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Hyperten. 2015;28:501–7.
Tektonidis TG, Åkesson A, Gigante B, Wolk A, Larsson SC. A Mediterranean diet and risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke: a population-based cohort. Atherosclerosis. 2015;243:93–8.
Prinelli F, Yannakoulia M, Anastasiou CA, Adorni F, Di Santo SG, Musicco M, et al. Mediterranean diet and other lifestyle factors in relation to 20-year all-cause mortality: a cohort study in an Italian population. Br J Nutr. 2015;113:1003–11.
Bonaccio M, Di Castelnuovo A, Costanzo S, Persichillo M, De Curtis A, Donati MB, et al. Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and mortality in subjects with diabetes. Prospective results from the MOLI-SANI study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23:400–7.
Fung TT, Rimm EB, Spiegelman D, Rifai N, Tofler GH, Willett WC, et al. Association between dietary pattern and plasma biomarkers of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:61–7.
Van Dam RM, Grievink L, Ocké MC, Feskens EJ. Patterns of food consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general Dutch population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:1156–63.
Berg CM, Lappas G, Strandhagen E, Wolk A, Torén K, Rosengren A, et al. Food patterns and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Swedish INTERGENE research program. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:289–97.
Bo S, Gentile L, Ciccone G, Baldi C, Benini L, Dusio F, et al. The metabolic syndrome and high C-reactive protein: prevalence and difference by sex in a southern-European population-based cohort. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2005;21:515–24.
Bo S, Durazzo M, Guidi S, Carello M, Sacerdote C, Silli B, et al. Dietary magnesium and fiber intake, inflammatory and metabolic parameters in middle-aged subjects from a population-based cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:1062–9.
Kroke A, Klipstein-Grobusch K, Voss S, Moseneder J, Thielecke F, Noack R, et al. Validation of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire administered in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study: comparison of energy, protein, and macronutrient intakes estimated with the doubly labeled water, urinary nitrogen, and repeated 24-h dietary recall methods. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:439–47.
Taylor HL, Jacobs DR Jr, Schucker B, Knudsen J, Leon AS, Debacker G. Questionnaire for the assessment of leisure time physical activities. J Chronic Dis. 1978;31:741–55.
Schofield WN. Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr. 1985;39:5–41.
Goldberg GR, Black AE, Jebb SA, Cole TJ, Murgatroyd PR, Coward WA, et al. Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under-recording. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1991;45:569–81.
(in Italian). Accessed 27 Feb 2016.
Willett W, Stampfer MJ. Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;124:17–27.
D’Agostino RB, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, Wolf PA, Cobain M, Massaro JM, et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2008;117:743–53.
Bonaccio M, Di Castelnuovo A, De Curtis A, Costanzo S, Persichillo M, Donati MB, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower platelet and leukocyte counts: results from the Moli-sani study. Blood. 2014;123:3037–44.
Mantzoros CS, Williams CJ, Manson JE, Meigs JB, Hu FB. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is positively associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetic women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:328–35.
Martínez-González MA, García-Arellano A, Toledo E, Salas-Salvadó J, Buil-Cosiales P, Corella D, et al. A 14-item Mediterranean diet assessment tool and obesity indexes among high-risk subjects: the PREDIMED trial. PLoS One. 2012;7:e43134.
Steffen LM, Van Horn L, Daviglus ML, Zhou X, Reis JP, Loria CM, et al. A modified Mediterranean diet score is associated with a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome over 25 years among young adults: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study. Br J Nutr. 2014;112:1654–61.
Rodríguez JM, Leiva Balich L, Concha MJ, Mizón C, Bunout Barnett D, Barrera Acevedo G, et al. Reduction of serum advanced glycation end-products with a low calorie Mediterranean diet. Nutr Hosp. 2015;31:2511–7.
Bertoli S, Leone A, Vignati L, Bedogni G, Martínez-González MÁ, Bes-Rastrollo M, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with visceral abdominal tissue in Caucasian subjects. Clin Nutr. 2015;34:1266–72.
Esposito K, Marfella R, Ciotola M, Di Palo C, Giugliano F, Giugliano G, et al. Effect of a mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2004;292:1440–6.
Fitó M, Guxens M, Corella D, Sáez G, Estruch R, de la Torre R, et al. Effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet on lipoprotein oxidation: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1195–203.
Salas-Salvadó J, Bulló M, Babio N, Martínez-González MÁ, Ibarrola-Jurado N, Basora J, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with the Mediterranean diet: results of the PREDIMED-Reus nutrition intervention randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:14–9.
Estruch R, Martínez-González MA, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Covas MI, et al. Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:1–11.
Trichopolou A, Bamia C, Trichopolou D. Mediterranean diet and survival among patients with coronary heart disease in Greece. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:929–35.
Vannoni F, Spadea T, Frasca G, Tumino R, Demaria M, Sacerdote C, et al. Association between social class and food consumption in the Italian EPIC population. Tumori. 2008;89:669–78.
Hoevenaar-Blom MP, Spijkerman AMW, Boshuizen HC, Boer JMA, Kromhout D, Verschuren WMM. Effect of using repeated measurements of a Mediterranean style diet on the strength of the association with cardiovascular disease during 12 years: the Doetinchem Cohort Study. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53:1209–15.