- Open Access
A quantitative real time PCR method to analyze T cell receptor Vβ subgroup expansion by staphylococcal superantigens
© Seo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
- Received: 1 July 2009
- Accepted: 13 January 2010
- Published: 13 January 2010
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), SE-like (SEl) toxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), produced by Staphylococcus aureus, belong to the subgroup of microbial superantigens (SAgs). SAgs induce clonal proliferation of T cells bearing specific variable regions of the T cell receptor β chain (Vβ). Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has become widely accepted for rapid and reproducible mRNA quantification. Although the quantification of Vβ subgroups using qRT-PCR has been reported, qRT-PCR using both primers annealing to selected Vβ nucleotide sequences and SYBR Green I reporter has not been applied to assess Vβ-dependent expansion of T cells by SAgs.
Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with various SAgs or a monoclonal antibody specific to human CD3. Highly specific expansion of Vβ subgroups was assessed by qRT-PCR using SYBR Green I reporter and primers corresponding to selected Vβ nucleotide sequences.
qRT-PCR specificities were confirmed by sequencing amplified PCR products and melting curve analysis. To assess qRT-PCR efficiencies, standard curves were generated for each primer set. The average slope and R2 of standard curves were -3.3764 ± 0.0245 and 0.99856 ± 0.000478, respectively, demonstrating that the qRT-PCR established in this study is highly efficient. With some exceptions, SAg Vβ specificities observed in this study were similar to those reported in previous studies.
The qRT-PCR method established in this study produced an accurate and reproducible assessment of Vβ-dependent expansion of human T cells by staphylococcal SAgs. This method could be a useful tool in the characterization T cell proliferation by newly discovered SAg and in the investigation of biological effects of SAgs linked to pathogenesis.
- Major Histocompatibility Complex
- Kawasaki Disease
- Subgroup Gene
- Absolute Copy Number
- Amplify Gene Fragment
The α/β T cell receptor (TCR) is composed of α and β chain heterodimers which recognize antigen-derived peptide bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on antigen presenting cells (APCs) . During thymocyte development, the genes encoding the β chain undergo somatic recombination of variable (V), diversity (D), joining (J), and constant (C) genes. Combinatorial joining of V-J and V-D-J region gene segments generates diversity within the TCR β chain complementarity determining region (CDR) 3 loop [2, 3]. Combinatorial diversity is further increased by imprecise joining of VDJ recombination and insertion of palindromic nucleotides at a specific point within the VD, DJ, and VJ junctions . As a result, each T cell clone expresses a unique variable region of TCR β chain (Vβ) . Generally, the CDR1 and CDR2 sequences within the TCR molecule, encoded by V gene segments, interact with the α helix of the MHC molecule . TCR CDR3 sequences, encoded by V(D)J junction gene segments, interact with the antigenic peptide associated with MHC, resulting in clonal T cell proliferation .
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), SE-like (SEl) toxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), produced by Staphylococcus aureus, are prototypic microbial superantigens (SAgs). Members of this toxin subgroup are implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome . SEl toxins have been shown to lack emetic properties in primates or have not yet been tested . For many years, five antigenically distinct classic SEs (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE) and molecular variants of SEC (SEC1, SEC2, and SEC3) were recognized . Through improvements in genomic analysis tools, novel SEs and SEl toxins including SEG, SElH, SEI, SElJ, SElK, SElL, SElM, SElO, SElP, SElQ, SElR, and SElU and four molecular variants (SEGv, SEIv, SElNv, and SElUv) have been discovered [7, 9]. In contrast to conventional antigens, most SAgs bind outside the peptide binding groove of MHC II, and to specific Vβ sequences . This interaction triggers an activation of phospholipase C and phosphokinase C pathways , leading to a massive production of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-2 and interferon-γ , resulting in extensive proliferation of T cells bearing specific Vβ subgroups . As a result, it is possible to characterize SAgs on the basis of their Vβ profiles .
Several approaches are used to quantify the expansion of Vβ subgroups including northern blotting, semi-quantitative PCR using radioisotope conjugated probes , or fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to Vβ subgroups [13, 14]. Recently, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has become widely accepted for rapid and reproducible quantification of gene expression. Most previous attempts to quantify Vβ expression using qRT-PCR used one primer located at the gene encoding TCR constant region of β chain (Cβ) and the other primer or fluorogenic probe located within the gene encoding the V region [15, 16]. More importantly, previous qRT-PCR methods have been applied to samples displaying expansion of limited numbers of Vβ subgroups . In this study, we developed a new qRT-PCR method using Vβ subgroup specific primers within the gene encoding the V region to increase specificity and SYBR Green I to curtail the cost of the assay. This technique was applied to human mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with various SAgs, which have unique Vβ specificities, though overlapping so that the entire repertoire of Vβ subgroups could be evaluated using this method.
Toxin production and purification
List of primers used to clone SE and SEl genes.
GenBank access number
Forward primer ('5 to 3')
Reverse primer ('5 to 3')
Preparation and stimulation of enriched human lymphocytes
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from three healthy donor venous blood. Heparin-treated (14 U/ml blood) blood was fractionated by gradient centrifugation over Ficoll-Paque Plus (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, New jersey, USA) as described previously . The PBMCs were washed and resuspended in RPMI 1640 medium (Life technologies, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA) supplemented with 2% FBS, 100 U penicillin G, and 100 μg/ml streptomycin. The cultures were maintained in cell culture Petri dishes (Falcon, Lincoln Park, New Jersey) overnight at 37°C and in 5% CO2. Non-adherent lymphocyte-enriched PBMCs were collected, washed, and resuspended at a final concentration of 2.5 × 106 cells/ml. Each SAg (0.5 μg/ml) or a murine mAb specific to human CD3 (33 ng/ml; Sigma, St. Louis, Missouri, USA) was added to lymphocyte enriched PBMC cultures (3 ml aliquots). Cultures were maintained for 4 days (37°C, 5% CO2). Basal levels of Vβ expansion were assessed with unstimulated control cultures.
Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR)
List of qRT-PCR primersa and amplified Vβ gene(s).
GenBank access number
Forward primer ('5 to 3')
Reverse primer ('5 to 3')
Amplified Vβ gene(s)b
TCRVB6s1, 6s2, 6s3, 6s4, 6s5, 6s6
TCRVB7s1, 7s2, 7s3
TCRVB8s1, 8s2, 8s3
To verify primer specificities, melting curve analyses (below) and PCR product sequencing were performed. For sequencing, PCR reactions were conducted without SYBR Green I using cDNA generated from cultures stimulated CD3-specific mAb. PCR products were purified using a PCR purification kit (Qiagen, Valencia, California, USA) and then cloned into pCR2.1 vector (Life Technologies). Transformants (10 to 25 colonies) were randomly selected and the cloned gene fragments were sequenced using an ABI Prism 3100 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems).
Standard curves were generated for each gene to evaluate primer efficiency and for data analysis. Concentrations of purified PCR products were determined by measuring the absorbance at 260 nm using a Nanodrop (Thermo Scientific, Wilmington, Delaware, USA) and expressed as the number of DNA copies/ml using standard procedures [22, 23]. The qRT-PCR was performed (below) on serially diluted PCR products (2.5 - 2.5 × 105 copies/reaction) using ABI Prism 7500 (Applied Biosystems) in triplicate and was repeated in at least three separate experiments. Standard curves were generated by plotting the CT vs. the log10copies of serially diluted PCR products. The slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient (R2) were determined by linear regression analysis using Microcal OriginPro Version 7.5 (OriginLab, Northampton, Massachusetts, USA).
The qRT-PCR was performed in triplicate and was repeated in at least three separate experiments using the following conditions. Reaction mixtures contained 12.5 μl of SYBR Green I dye master mix (Applied Biosystems), 2 pmoles each of forward and reverse primers, and 5 μl of 100 times diluted cDNA. Thermocycle conditions included initial denaturation at 50°C and 95°C (10 min each), followed by 40 cycles at 95°C (15 s) and 60°C (1 min). Fluorescent data were acquired during each extension phase. After 40 cycles, a melting curve was generated by slowly increasing (0.1°C/s) the temperature from 60°C to 95°C, while the fluorescence was measured. The threshold cycle (CT) was calculated using the Sequence Detector Systems version 1.2.2 (Applied Biosystems) by determining the cycle number at which the change in the fluorescence of the reporter dye (ΔRn) crossed the threshold. To synchronize each experiment, the baseline was set automatically by the software. To rule out DNA contamination in the RNA preparations, the qRT-PCR controls were performed with RNA templates which did not show any amplification.
Selective expansion of Vβs in the culture stimulated with SAgs was determined when each %Vβ from the cultures stimulated with SAgs was significantly higher than the corresponding %Vβ from the control cultures (without stimuli) by paired t-test (p < 0.001) using SAS statistical software (version 9.0, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA).
Sensitivity and efficiency of the qRT-PCR
Standard curve slopes, Y axis intercepts and correlation coefficients (R2)
Y axis intercept
Correlation coefficient (R2)
Specificity of the qRT-PCR
qRT-PCR specificities were assessed by melting curve analysis and sequencing of amplified PCR products. Melting curves of the qRT-PCR reactions observed for Vβ subgroups consisting of a single gene, as well as G3PDH and Cβ genes, showed single peak. A representative result obtained for Vβ1 is shown in Figure 1C. The melting curve for the Vβ1 reaction contained a single peak at 78°C. Melting curves for Vβ subgroups consisting of multiple subgroup genes (Vβ7, 12, 13A, and 17) showed multiple peaks due to the expected heterogeneity in amplified gene fragments. Representative results for Vβ17 are shown in Figure 1D. qRT-PCR for Vβ17, which contains three subgroup genes produced a melting curve with three peaks as expected. However, some Vβ subgroups consisting of multiple subgroup genes (Vβ5, 6, 8, 13B, and 21) showed only a single peak (data not shown). To identify whether primers designed for these Vβ subgroups amplified the targeted subgroup genes, PCR products were cloned and sequenced. This revealed that, except for Vβ21, the primers amplified multiple Vβ subgroup genes within the targeted Vβ subgroup (Table 2). No untargeted sequences were generated. We also analyzed the amplified PCR products using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed that there was no non-specific amplification other than expected size of amplification product (data not shown).
Quantification of Vβ expansion
Comparison of Vβ specificity observed in this study with those in selected previous studies.
Vβ specificity observed in this study
Vβ specificity observed in previous studiesa
Vβ1, 5, 6, 7, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, 24
Vβ1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 16, 18, 21
Vβ3, 12, 13Bb, 14, 15, 17, 20
Vβ1, 3, 6, 12, 13.2, 15, 17, 20
Vβ3, 12, 13B, 14, 15, 17, 20
Vβ3, 12, 13.2, 14, 15, 17, 20
Vβ1, 3, 5, 8, 9, 12, 14
Vβ1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12
Vβ5, 6, 8, 9, 13Ac, 16, 18
Vβ5, 6, 8, 13.1, 18, 21
Vβ3, 12, 13A, 13B, 14, 15
Vβ3, 12, 13, 14
Vβ1, 5, 6, 23
Vβ1, 5, 6, 23
Vβ6, 8, 9, 18, 21
Vβ6, 8, 9, 18, 21
Vβ7, 8, 9, 17
Vβ5, 7, 22
More than 67 different human Vβ genes, of which a quarter are pseudogenes, have been have been cloned and sequenced [2, 21, 27]. These studies confirmed the existence of 49 functional Vβ genes within 24 different Vβ subgroups. Due to the heterogeneity, some of the 24 Vβ subgroups consist of multiple subgroup genes. In this study, we designed two primers annealing to each of 22 different Vβ subgroups (36 Vβ genes) to quantify expansion of T cell bearing specific Vβ subgroups and subgroup genes in response to SAgs.
One of the important factors that affect the validity of qRT-PCR is the efficiency of primers. The primers used in qRT-PCR should have uniform and high efficiency to achieve a valid quantification. The efficiency and linearity of primers could be assessed by analyzing the slope and R2 value of the standard curve, respectively. In theory, the slope should be close to -3.32 with an optimal efficiency when 10-fold serially diluted templates were used. The average slope and R2 of standard curves for all primers used in qRT-PCR was -3.3764 ± 0.0245 and 0.99856 ± 0.000478, respectively. This suggests that all primers used in qRT-PCR have uniform and high efficiency and linearity.
The specificity of qRT-PCR using SYBR Green I platform was often determined by analyzing melting curves. In this study, the specificities of each primer set were determined by analyzing melting curves and sequencing amplified PCR products. Melting curve analysis and sequencing amplified PCR products of reactions for, Cβ and Vβ subgroups consisting of a single subgroup showed a single peak and a single specific amplification. As expected, some Vβ subgroups comprised of multiple subgroup genes (Vβ7, 12, 13A, and 17) showed a corresponding number of peaks. However, some Vβ subgroups comprised of multiple subgroup genes (Vβ5, 6, 8, 13B, and 21) showed only a single peak. The sequence analysis of amplified PCR products for Vβ5, 6, 8, 13B, and 21 subgroups revealed that multiple subgroup genes were amplified. For example, the Vβ6 subgroup, consisting of 6 functional subgroup genes with > 87.9% sequence similarity to each other, showed a single peak in melting curve analysis, though the sequence analysis of amplified PCR product showed that all 6 functional subgroup genes were amplified. The resolution of these into a single peak probably due to a high level nucleotide sequence similarity among subgroup genes resulting in an identical meting temperature of amplified gene fragments. The identity of all sequenced PCR products matched with corresponding subgroups of Vβ subgroups and revealed that 36 out of 49 functional Vβ subgroup genes were amplified. It suggests that primers used in this study were highly specific to targeted Vβ subgroup.
In this study, we used various SAgs showing similar and/or unique Vβ specificities covering the entire repertoire of human Vβ subgroups. The qRT-PCR showed that every Vβ subgroup was expanded in this study. As shown in Table 4, the Vβ specificities of SAgs observed in this study was very similar to those described in previous studies with minor variation [7, 11, 12, 24–26]. In this study, newly identified Vβ specificities were observed for some SAgs such as SEA (Vβ15, 22, and 24), SEB (Vβ 14), SED (Vβ3, 9, and 14), SEE (Vβ9 and 16), SEG (Vβ15), and SElN (Vβ7, 8, and 17). Also, some Vβ previously reported specificities were not observed for some SAgs such as SEB (Vβ1 and 6), SED (Vβ6 and 7), SEE (Vβ21), and SElO (Vβ22). These discrepancies might be explained by the differences in the repose to SAgs among humans or differences in techniques (PCR, flow cytometry), or the lack of reagents at the time of previous studies. For example, the Vβ specificity of some SAgs in two previous studies was determined by semi-quantitative PCR using primers specific to Vβ1 through Vβ20 [11, 12]. This present study incorporated primers specific to Vβ21 through Vβ24. However, it is noteworthy that Vβ subgroups most prominently expanded by each SAg observed in this study were identical to those observed in previous studies.
In this report, we developed an assay to quantify the expansion of human Vβ subgroups using qRT-PCR. The specificity and efficiency of the method were evaluated by generating standard curves for each primer set. The validity of the method was assessed by analyzing the Vβ specificity of various SAgs which combined, interact with Vβ repertoires covering all known Vβ subgroups. Our results demonstrate that the method established in this study is accurate, sensitive, and highly reproducible. This qRT-PCR method could also be used to characterize novel SAgs, to determine complete profiles of currently known SAgs, and to help understand the role of T cells bearing specific Vβs in certain diseases such as neoplastic expansion of large granular lymphocytes, T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [28, 29] as well as some immune disorders associated with SAgs such as immunosuppression, Kawasaki disease, and atopy [30–32].
This work was supported by the grants from the National Institutes of Health Grants (P20 RR15587, P20 RR016454, and U54AI57141), the USDA NRI grant (2008-892) and the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station.
- Davis MM, Boniface JJ, Reich Z, Lyons D, Hampl J, Arden B, Chien Y: Ligand recognition by alpha beta T cell receptors. Annu Rev Immunol. 1998, 16: 523-544. 10.1146/annurev.immunol.16.1.523.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rowen L, Koop BF, Hood L: The complete 685-kilobase DNA sequence of the human beta T cell receptor locus. Science. 1996, 272: 1755-1762. 10.1126/science.272.5269.1755.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Davis MM, Bjorkman PJ: T-cell antigen receptor genes and T-cell recognition. Nature. 1988, 334: 395-402. 10.1038/334395a0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Behlke MA, Spinella DG, Chou HS, Sha W, Hartl DL, Loh DY: T-cell receptor beta-chain expression: dependence on relatively few variable region genes. Science. 1985, 229: 566-570. 10.1126/science.3875151.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Marrack P, Kappler J: Positive selection of thymocytes bearing alpha beta T cell receptors. Curr Opin Immunol. 1997, 9: 250-255. 10.1016/S0952-7915(97)80144-6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garcia KC, Degano M, Stanfield RL, Brunmark A, Jackson MR, Peterson PA, Teyton L, Wilson IA: An alphabeta T cell receptor structure at 2.5 A and its orientation in the TCR-MHC complex. Science. 1996, 274: 209-219. 10.1126/science.274.5285.209.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Seo KS, Bohach GA:Staphylcoccus aureus. Food microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. Edited by: Doyle MM, Beucaht LR. 2007, Washington, DC: ASM Press, 493-518.Google Scholar
- Lina G, Bohach GA, Nair SP, Hiramatsu K, Jouvin-Marche E, Mariuzza R: Standard nomenclature for the superantigens expressed by Staphylococcus. J Infect Dis. 2004, 189: 2334-2336. 10.1086/420852.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bohach GA: Staphylococcus aureus Exotoxins. Gram-Positive Pathogens. Edited by: Fischetti VA, Novick RP, Ferretti JJ, Portnoy DA, Rood JI. 2006, Washington, DC: ASM Press, 464-477.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mooney NA, Ju L, Brick-Ghannam C, Charron DJ: Bacterial superantigen signaling via HLA class II on human B lymphocytes. Mol Immunol. 1994, 31: 675-681. 10.1016/0161-5890(94)90177-5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Choi YW, Kotzin B, Herron L, Callahan J, Marrack P, Kappler J: Interaction of Staphylococcus aureus toxin "superantigens" with human T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1989, 86: 8941-8945. 10.1073/pnas.86.22.8941.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Deringer JR, Ely RJ, Stauffacher CV, Bohach GA: Subtype-specific interactions of type C staphylococcal enterotoxins with the T-cell receptor. Mol Microbiol. 1996, 22: 523-534. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1996.1381506.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pilch H, Hohn H, Freitag K, Neukirch C, Necker A, Haddad P, Tanner B, Knapstein PG, Maeurer MJ: Improved assessment of T-cell receptor (TCR) VB repertoire in clinical specimens: combination of TCR-CDR3 spectratyping with flow cytometry-based TCR VB frequency analysis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002, 9: 257-266.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bercovici N, Duffour MT, Agrawal S, Salcedo M, Abastado JP: New methods for assessing T-cell responses. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2000, 7: 859-864.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Walters G, Alexander SI: T cell receptor BV repertoires using real time PCR: a comparison of SYBR green and a dual-labelled HuTrec fluorescent probe. J Immunol Methods. 2004, 294: 43-52. 10.1016/j.jim.2004.08.015.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ochsenreither S, Fusi A, Busse A, Nagorsen D, Schrama D, Becker J, Thiel E, Keilholz U: Relative quantification of TCR Vbeta-chain families by real time PCR for identification of clonal T-cell populations. J Transl Med. 2008, 6: 34-10.1186/1479-5876-6-34.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Deringer JR, Ely RJ, Monday SR, Stauffacher CV, Bohach GA: Vbeta-dependent stimulation of bovine and human T cells by host-specific staphylococcal enterotoxins. Infect Immun. 1997, 65: 4048-4054.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Li H, Llera A, Tsuchiya D, Leder L, Ysern X, Schlievert PM, Karjalainen K, Mariuzza RA: Three-dimensional structure of the complex between a T cell receptor beta chain and the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Immunity. 1998, 9: 807-816. 10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80646-9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bohach GA, Schlievert PM: Detection of endotoxin by enhancement with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Methods Enzymol. 1988, 165: 302-306. full_text.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Monday SR, Bohach GA: Use of multiplex PCR to detect classical and newly described pyrogenic toxin genes in staphylococcal isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 1999, 37: 3411-3414.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Arden B, Clark SP, Kabelitz D, Mak TW: Human T-cell receptor variable gene segment families. Immunogenetics. 1995, 42: 455-500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T: Concentration of DNA Solution. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Edited by: Nolan C. 1989, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Appendix C1Google Scholar
- Yin JL, Shackel NA, Zekry A, McGuinness PH, Richards C, Putten KV, McCaughan GW, Eris JM, Bishop GA: Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for measurement of cytokine and growth factor mRNA expression with fluorogenic probes or SYBR Green I. Immunol Cell Biol. 2001, 79: 213-221. 10.1046/j.1440-1711.2001.01002.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lamphear JG, Mollick JA, Reda KB, Rich RR: Residues near the amino and carboxyl termini of staphylococcal enterotoxin E independently mediate TCR V beta-specific interactions. J Immunol. 1996, 156: 2178-2185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kappler J, Kotzin B, Herron L, Gelfand EW, Bigler RD, Boylston A, Carrel S, Posnett DN, Choi Y, Marrack P: V beta-specific stimulation of human T cells by staphylococcal toxins. Science. 1989, 244: 811-813. 10.1126/science.2524876.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jarraud S, Peyrat MA, Lim A, Tristan A, Bes M, Mougel C, Etienne J, Vandenesch F, Bonneville M, Lina G: egc, a highly prevalent operon of enterotoxin gene, forms a putative nursery of superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus. J Immunol. 2001, 166: 669-677.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lefranc M, Lefranc G: The T cell receptor. 2001, New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
- Loughran TP, Starkebaum G, Aprile JA: Rearrangement and expression of T-cell receptor genes in large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Blood. 1988, 71: 822-824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Willenbrock K, Roers A, Seidl C, Wacker HH, Kuppers R, Hansmann ML: Analysis of T-cell subpopulations in T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia type by single target gene amplification of T cell receptor- beta gene rearrangements. Am J Pathol. 2001, 158: 1851-1857.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Seo KS, Park JY, Davis WC, Fox LK, McGuire MA, Park YH, Bohach GA: Superantigen-mediated differentiation of bovine monocytes into dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2009, 85 (4): 606-16. 10.1189/jlb.0608338.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Seo KS, Lee SU, Park YH, Davis WC, Fox LK, Bohach GA: Long-term staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 exposure induces soluble factor-mediated immunosuppression by bovine CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Infect Immun. 2007, 75: 260-269. 10.1128/IAI.01358-06.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yarwood JM, Leung DY, Schlievert PM: Evidence for the involvement of bacterial superantigens in psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and Kawasaki syndrome. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000, 192: 1-7. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2000.tb09350.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.