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Table 1 Classification of eccDNA

From: Extrachromosomal circular DNA: a new potential role in cancer progression

Name of the eccDNA Size Characteristic Function
spcDNA 100–10 kb Homologous to repetitive chromosomal sequences; byproducts or intermediates of gene rearrangement Initiation and enhancement of genomic instability
telomeric circles Integral multiples of 738 bp Duplex or single-stranded molecule composed of telomeric repeats Involved in the ALT of telomeres
microDNA 100–400 bp Origin from regions with high GC content and exon density Expressing functional small regulatory RNAs, including microRNAs and new si-like RNAs
ecDNA 1–3 Mb Acentric, without telomere, containing full genes Amplifying genes related to carcinogenesis and drug resistance