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Table 5 Final cluster solution–differences in development of symptoms and functions over time (baseline to week 30 follow-up)

From: Are there subgroups of chronic fatigue syndrome? An exploratory cluster analysis of biological markers

Cluster 1: Pain tolerant & good cognitions (n = 40) 2: Restored HPA dynamics (n = 15) 3: Orthostatic intolerance (n = 20) 4: Low-grade inflammation (n = 4) 5: Pain intolerant & poor cognitions (n = 33) 6: High vagal activity (n = 3) p-valuea
Δ CFQ-mean [95% CI] − 5.0 [− 7.6, − 2.4] − 5.0 [− 10.5, 0.5] − 4.8 [− 7.6, − 2.0] − 6.5 [n.a] − 5.2 [− 8.1, − 2.2] 4.0 [n.a.] 0.999
Δ PEM-mean [95% CI] − 0.48 [− 0.9, 0.0] − 0.36 [− 1.4, 0.6] 0.12 [− 0.2, 0.4] − 1.00 [n.a.] − 0.73 [− 1.2, − 0.3] − 1.0 [n.a.] 0.130
Δ MFQ-mean [95% CI] − 1.0 [− 4.1, 2.1] − 1.7 [− 7.4, 3.9] − 0.2 [− 3.6, 3.1] − 4.7 [n.a.] − 3.1 [− 6.8, 0.5] − 3.0 [n.a.] 0.685
Δ Steps per day-mean [95% CI] 526 [− 593, 1644] − 1107 [− 3004, 789] − 578 [− 1506, 350] 1228 [n.a.] 283 [− 532, 1099] − 657 [n.a.] 0.218
Δ FDI-mean [95% CI] − 3.1 [− 6.2, 0.1] − 1.9 [− 8.2, 4.4] 0.6 [− 3.4, 4.6] − 13.0 [n.a.] − 6.7 [− 10.8, − 2.5] − 9.5 [n.a.] 0.079
Δ PedsQL-mean [95% CI] 6.6 [0.8, 12.5] 5.8 [− 6.4, 18.1] 2.5 [− 2.7, 7.7] 6.9 [n.a.] 8.4 [4.3, 12.5] 14.2 [n.a.] 0.584
  1. HPA: hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal; CI: Confidence Interval; n.a.: not applicable; CFQ: Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire; PEM: Post Exertional Malaise; MFQ: Moods and Feelings Questionnaire; FDI: Funtion and Disability Inventory; PedsQL: Pediatric Quality of Life
  2. aUnadjusted p-values. The p-values are based on one-way ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis test, as appropriate. Only group 1–3 and 5 were used in the statistical analyses due to few participants in group 4 and 6