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Table 4 Final cluster solution–differences in symptoms and functional abilities

From: Are there subgroups of chronic fatigue syndrome? An exploratory cluster analysis of biological markers

Cluster 1: Pain tolerant & good cognitions (n = 40) 2: Restored HPA dynamics (n = 15) 3: Orthostatic intolerance (n = 20) 4: Low-grade inflammation (n = 4) 5: Pain intolerant & poor cognitions (n = 33) 6: High vagal activity (n = 3) p-valuea
CFQ-mean [95% CI] 18.9 [17.0, 20.9] 17.5 [13.8, 21.2] 18.6 [16.0, 21.1] 23.8 [19.0, 28.5] 20.7 [18.3, 23.1] 17.3 [10.2, 24.5] 0.344
PEM-mean (Mean Rank) 3.8 (47.9) 4.0 (56.6) 3.8 (48.1) 3.8 (n.a) 4.2 (59.0) 4.3 (n.a.) 0.074
MFQ-mean [95% CI] 18.1 [15.0, 21.2] 18.9 [10.6, 27.3] 14.7 [11.3, 18.0] 24.0 [12.5, 35.5] 17.9 [14.4, 21.4] 14.0 [-8.8, 36.8] 0.559
Steps per day-mean [95% CI] 5100 [4396, 5804] 5573 [3906, 7240] 4225 [3091, 5358]] 4015 [130, 7899] 3942 [3211, 4672] 3008 [1837, 4178] 0.063
FDI-mean [95% CI] 21.6 [19.2, 24.1] 19.7 [14.6, 24.7] 21.1 [17.2, 25.0] 28.8 [11.2, 46.3] 29.3 [25.8, 32.7] 21.0 [8.6, 33.4] <0.001
PedsQL–mean [95% CI] 52.1 [48.5, 55.6] 51.7 [42.4, 60.9] 51.0 [44.6, 57.5] 44.0 [36.9, 51.1] 42.7 [38.2, 47.1] 44.5 [23.5, 65.6] 0.013
  1. HPA: hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal; SD: standard deviation; CFQ: Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire; PEM: Post Exertional Malaise; MFQ: Moods and Feelings Questionnaire; FDI: Funtion and Disability Inventory; PedsQL: Pediatric Quality of Life. n.a.: not applicable.
  2. aUnadjusted p-values. The p-values are based on one-way ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis test, as appropriate. Only group 1–3 and 5 were used in the statistical analyses due to few participants in group 4 and 6