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Table 2 Summary of clinical trials with NGF on central nervous system’s diseases

From: Nerve growth factor: from the early discoveries to the potential clinical use

Disease Study type NGF type and dosage Delivery route Outcome Side effects References
Alzheimer’s Disease Single case report. Mouse NGF. 75 μg/day for three months, total amount: 6.6 mg. ICV. Increase of cortical blood flow and brain nicotine uptake. Improvement of verbal episodic memory. Weight loss. [119]
  Three patients case report. Mouse NGF. Two patients:75 μg/day or three months, total amount: 6.6 mg. One patient: 16 μg/day for 2 weeks and 3.4 μg/day for further 10 weeks, total amount: 0.55 mg. ICV. Increase of brain nicotine uptake. Weight loss. Back pain. [120]
  Phase I clinical trial. Human NGF genetically engineered into autologous grafted fibroblasts. Gene therapy. Improvement in the rate of cognitive decline. Significant increases in cortical 18-fluorodeoxyglucose after treatment, as revealed by PET scans. Absence of long-term adverse effect in 6 out of 8 patients. [182]
  Phase I randomized, controlled dose-escalating study to assess the safety and tolerability of CERE-110. Human NGF genetically engineered into adeno-associated virus vector (CERE-110). Gene therapy. Ongoing. Ongoing. [183185]
  Open label, 12 month study on 6 patients. Human NGF genetically engineered in human retinal cells encapsulated in implantable device Gene therapy. The phase I trial was a safety and tolerability study. The implantation and removal of device were safe and well tolerated. Positive neurological outcomes were also found in 2 out of 6 patients. No NGF-related adverse events were found. [187, 190]
Parkinson’s disease Single case report. Mouse NGF. 3.3 mg infused via implanted cannula over 23 days, as support for adrenal medulla graft. Intra-putaminal. NGF treatment could prolong the effect of adrenal chromaffin grafts in human PD. Not reported. [121]
Optic glioma and advanced optic nerve atrophy. Five patients case study. Mouse NGF. 1 mg total over 10 days in daily applications. Topical (eye). Improvement in visual evoked potentials (VEP). Not reported. [206]
  Single patient case study. Mouse NGF. 1 mg total over 10 days in daily applications. Topical (eye). Reversible improvements of visual function and electrophysiological measurements. Not reported. [207]
Hypoxic-ischemic perinatal brain injury Two patients case study. Mouse NGF. 0.1 mg/day for 10 days. ICV. Improvement in the comatose status, increased alpha/theta ratio in the EEG, reduction of malacic areas and improvement, in right temporal and occipital cortices perfusion. Not reported. [123]
  Two patients case study. Mouse NGF. 0.1 mg/day for 10 days. ICV. Improvement in EEG and SPECT parameters. An increase of doublecortin in CSF. Not reported. [122]