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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants

From: Lumican is elevated in the lung in human and experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome and promotes early fibrotic responses to lung injury

  Spontaeous breathing controls (N = 29) Ventilated controls (N = 20) ARDS patients (N = 55) p value
Age (years) 50 [40–57] 52.0 [41.3–68.5] 56 [41–77] 0.090
Sex ratio (male/female) 21/8 17/3 43/12 0.582
BMI (kg/m2) 24.5 [21.7–26.6] 24.0[19.7–25.7] 25.5[23.0–27.7] 0.056
SOFA on admission   7 [4.3–9] 11 [8–13]  < 0.0001
PH   7.42 [7.39–7.43] 7.38 [7.27–7.44] 0.035
PaCO2 (mmHg)   39.2 [36.1–44.0] 39.8 [31.3–44.7] 0.710
PaO2 (mmHg)   106.5 [76.1–141.3] 78.8 [66.0–98.0] 0.002
FiO2 (%)   40 [31.3–40.0] 80 [60–100]  < 0.001
Lactate (mmol/L)   1.6 [1.3–1.8] 2.7 [1.8–4.2] 0.007
Oxygen saturation   99.2 [97.7–100] 95 [91–98]  < 0.0001
PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg)   331.6 [196.0–358.9] 106.7 [80.0–140.0]  < 0.0001
PEEP (cmH2O)   5 [5–6.5] 5 [5, 6] 0.319
Tidal volume (ml/kg IBW)   3.53 [3.25–4.21] 6.81 [6.21–7.29]  < 0.0001
Mechanical ventilation [n (%)]   20 (100%) 55 (100%)  
Duration of MV (d)   8.5 [3–25.75] 6 [3–10] 0.317
Mortality at day 28 [n (%)]   4 (20%) 21 (38.2%)  
Cause of death [n (%)]     
 Sepsis   0 10 (47.6%)  
 Pulmonary dysfunction   1 (25%) 5 (23.8%)  
 Neurologic dysfunction   3 (75%) 2 (9.5%)  
 Cardiac dysfunction   0 2 (9.5%)  
 Multiple organ failure   0 2 (9.5%)  
ICU length of stay (d)   10 [4–26] 7 [4–13] 0.223
Causes for ICU admission [n (%)]     
 Infectious pneumonia   0 24 (43.6%)  
 Extra-pulmonary sepsis   0 11 (20%)  
 Post-operation   14 (70%) 7 (12.7%)  
 Trauma   1 (5%) 6 (10.9%)  
 Others   5 (25%) 7 (12.7%)  
  1. The data are presented as median [interquartile range] or frequencies (%)
  2. P values were calculated using the Mann–Whitney test or Kruskal–Wallis test
  3. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  4. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, FiO2 fraction of inspiration O2, IBW ideal body weight, ICU intensive care unit, MV mechanical ventilation, PaO2 partial pressure of O2, PaO2/FiO2 partial pressure of O2/fraction of inspiration O2, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment