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Table 4 Association between dietary fiber intake and cancer mortality

From: Associations between dietary fiber intake and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer: a prospective study

Variables Median (g/day) Cohort (n) Cases (n) Crude HR (95% CI), p-value Adjusted HR* (95% CI), p-value
Total
 Q1 (< 11.12) 8.83 17,360 1247 Reference Reference
 Q2 (≥ 11.12 to < 14.71) 12.95 17,330 1150 0.90 (0.83–0.97), p = 0.009 0.91 (0.84–0.99), p = 0.024
 Q3 (≥ 14.71 to < 18.41) 16.48 17,322 1114 0.85 (0.79–0.93), p < 0.001 0.86 (0.79–0.94), p = 0.001
 Q4 (≥ 18.41 to < 23.75) 20.74 17,304 1109 0.85 (0.78–0.92), p < 0.001 0.83 (0.76–0.91), p < 0.001
 Q5 (≥ 23.75) 28.75 17,326 1140 0.86 (0.79–0.93), p < 0.001 0.77 (0.69–0.86), p < 0.001
     p for trend < 0.001 p for trend < 0.001
Insoluble
 Q1 (< 7.21) 5.7 17,366 1254 Reference Reference
 Q2 (≥ 7.21 to < 9.63) 8.44 17,342 1166 0.91 (0.84–0.98), p = 0.015 0.93 (0.86–1.01), p = 0.075
 Q3 (≥ 9.63 to < 12.11) 10.8 17,312 1099 0.84 (0.77–0.91), p < 0.001 0.85 (0.78–0.93), p < 0.001
 Q4 (≥ 12.11 to < 15.73) 13.69 17,332 1095 0.83 (0.76–0.90), p < 0.001 0.83 (0.75–0.91), p < 0.001
 Q5 (≥ 15.73) 19.09 17,290 1146 0.86 (0.79–0.93), p < 0.001 0.79 (0.71–0.87), p < 0.001
     p for trend < 0.001 p for trend < 0.001
Soluble fiber
 Q1 (< 3.72) 2.97 17,395 1224 Reference Reference
 Q2 (≥ 3.72 to < 4.91) 4.32 17,304 1161 0.93 (0.86–1.01), p = 0.073 0.93 (0.86–1.01), p = 0.099
 Q3 (≥ 4.91 to < 6.15) 5.49 17,351 1109 0.87 (0.80–0.95), p = 0.001 0.87 (0.79–0.95), p = 0.001
 Q4 (≥ 6.15 to < 7.92) 6.91 17,266 1111 0.86 (0.80–0.94), p < 0.001 0.83 (0.76–0.91), p < 0.001
 Q5 (≥ 7.92) 9.62 17,326 1155 0.90 (0.83–0.97), p = 0.009 0.79 (0.71–0.88), p < 0.001
     p for trend = 0.008 p for trend < 0.001
  1. *Adjusted for age (continuous), sex (male vs. female), race (non-Hispanic White vs. Other), body mass index (BMI, < 25.0 kg/m2 vs. ≥ 25.0 kg/m2), education (≤ high school vs. ≥ some college), smoking status (never vs. former ≤ 15 years since quit vs. former > 15 years since quit vs. former year since quit unknown vs. current smoker ≤ 1 pack per day vs. current smoker > 1 pack per day vs. current smoker intensity unknown), marital status (married vs. not married), alcohol drinking status (never vs. former vs. current), and total energy intake (continuous)