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Table 3 The odd ratios of treatments for patients with and without chronic fatigue syndrome in difference subgroup of comorbidities

From: Treatments of chronic fatigue syndrome and its debilitating comorbidities: a 12-year population-based study

Variable Control
(n = 6306)
CFS
(n = 6306)
Odds ratio
Crude (95% CI) p-value Adjusted (95% CI) p-value
Depression     
No Yes No Yes     
SSRI      1.69 (1.29,2.22)*** < 0.001 1.52 (1.14,2.03)** 0.004
 No 5633 313 4990 535     
 Yes 266 94 509 272     
SNRI      2.72 (1.67,4.42)*** < 0.001 2.56 (1.55,4.23)*** < 0.001
 No 5809 386 5362 703     
 Yes 90 21 137 104     
SARI      1.91 (1.43,2.54)*** < 0.001 1.73 (1.28,2.36)*** < 0.001
 No 5599 328 4971 553     
 Yes 300 79 528 254     
TCAs      1.30 (0.78,2.17) 0.305 1.21 (0.71,2.08) 0.480
 No 5812 385 5362 751     
 Yes 87 22 137 56     
BZD      1.96 (1.42,2.71)*** < 0.001 1.77 (1.24,2.52)** 0.002
 No 3178 82 2016 92     
 Yes 2721 325 3483 715     
NDRI      1.75 (0.93,3.28) 0.083 1.60 (0.82,3.09) 0.167
 No 5872 394 5447 763     
 Yes 27 13 52 44     
Muscle relaxant      1.58 (0.92,2.73) 0.100 1.27 (0.72,2.25) 0.411
 No 5750 389 5259 752     
 Yes 149 18 240 55     
Analgesic drug      13.7 (6.41,29.15)*** < 0.001 11.15 (5.00,24.87)*** < 0.001
 No 1022 49 94 8     
 Yes 4877 358 5405 799     
Supportive individual psychotherapy      1.52 (1.13,2.04)** 0.006 1.27 (0.92,1.74) 0.142
 No 5700 332 5204 601     
 Yes 199 75 295 206     
Intensive individual psychotherapy      1.94 (0.72,5.23) 0.191 1.79 (0.58,5.46) 0.310
 No 5890 402 5463 788     
 Yes 9 5 36 19     
Re-educative individual psychotherapy      1.72 (1.28,2.31)*** < 0.001 1.50 (1.10,2.05)* 0.011
 No 5724 333 5240 584     
 Yes 175 74 259 223     
Stretching exercise      1.12 (0.77,1.64) 0.538 1.12 (0.76,1.66) 0.563
 No 5522 362 5008 708     
 Yes 377 45 491 99     
Therapeutic exercise      1.80 (1.30,2.50)*** < 0.001 1.81 (1.29,2.55)*** < 0.001
 No 5184 351 4606 627     
 Yes 715 56 893 180     
Brainwave examination, sleep or wakefulness      1.01 (0.45,2.27) 0.983 0.98 (0.42,2.30) 0.959
 No 5776 398 5380 789     
 Yes 123 9 119 18     
Variable Control CFS Odds ratio
Crude (95% CI) p-value Adjusted (95% CI) p-value
Anxiety disorder     
No Yes No Yes     
SSRI      1.70 (1.38,2.09)*** < 0.001 1.54 (1.24,1.92)*** < 0.001
 No 5054 892 3918 1607     
 Yes 219 141 350 431     
SNRI      2.41 (1.63,3.57)*** < 0.001 2.02 (1.35,3.03)*** < 0.001
 No 5194 1001 4173 1892     
 Yes 79 32 95 146     
SARI      1.60 (1.31,1.96)*** < 0.001 1.37 (1.11,1.7)** 0.004
 No 5045 882 3925 1599     
 Yes 228 151 343 439     
TCAs      1.25 (0.86,1.83) 0.238 1.14 (0.77,1.68) 0.508
 No 5204 993 4173 1940     
 Yes 69 40 95 98     
BZD      1.89 (1.56,2.29)*** < 0.001 1.68 (1.37,2.06)*** < 0.001
 No 3022 238 1829 279     
 Yes 2251 795 2439 1759     
NDRI      2.09 (1.21,3.64)** 0.009 1.84 (1.04,3.25)* 0.037
 No 5249 1017 4237 1973     
 Yes 24 16 31 65     
Muscle relaxant      1.57 (1.09,2.25)* 0.015 1.46 (1.01,2.11)* 0.046
 No 5147 992 4097 1914     
 Yes 126 41 171 124     
Analgesic drug      7.84 (4.7,13.09)*** < 0.001 7.80 (4.55,13.38)*** < 0.001
 No 1000 71 83 19     
 Yes 4273 962 4185 2019     
Supportive individual psychotherapy      1.37 (1.09,1.72)** 0.007 1.15 (0.9,1.47) 0.267
 No 5113 919 4063 1742     
 Yes 160 114 205 296     
Intensive individual psychotherapy      2.34 (1.03,5.31)* 0.043 1.87 (0.79,4.46) 0.155
 No 5266 1026 4245 2006     
 Yes 7 7 23 32     
Re-educative individual psychotherapy      1.58 (1.25,2.00)*** < 0.001 1.34 (1.04,1.73)* 0.025
 No 5128 929 4092 1732     
 Yes 145 104 176 306     
Stretching exercise      1.49 (1.15,1.93)** 0.003 1.44 (1.1,1.88)** 0.008
 No 4936 948 3918 1798     
 Yes 337 85 350 240     
Therapeutic exercise      1.32 (1.08,1.61)** 0.006 1.29 (1.05,1.58)* 0.016
 No 4669 866 3609 1624     
 Yes 604 167 659 414     
Brainwave examination, sleep or wakefulness      0.69 (0.44,1.09) 0.109 0.67 (0.42,1.07) 0.095
 No 5175 999 4178 1991     
 Yes 98 34 90 47     
Variable Control CFS Odds ratio
Crude (95% CI) p-value Adjusted (95% CI) p-value
Insomnia     
No Yes No Yes     
SSRI      1.81 (1.47,2.24)*** < 0.001 1.65 (1.32,2.06)*** < 0.001
 No 4969 977 3667 1858     
 Yes 231 129 336 445     
SNRI      1.74 (1.23,2.47)** 0.002 1.54 (1.07,2.21)* 0.019
 No 5131 1064 3910 2155     
 Yes 69 42 93 148     
SARI      1.45 (1.2,1.76)*** < 0.001 1.30 (1.06,1.59)* 0.011
 No 4991 936 3701 1823     
 Yes 209 170 302 480     
TCAs      1.62 (1.09,2.4)* 0.018 1.58 (1.05,2.38)* 0.027
 No 5124 1073 3919 2194     
 Yes 76 33 84 109     
BZD      1.43 (1.2,1.71)*** < 0.001 1.37 (1.14,1.66)** 0.001
 No 3008 252 1714 394     
 Yes 2192 854 2289 1909     
NDRI      2.01 (1.14,3.55)* 0.016 1.75 (0.97,3.16) 0.062
 No 5175 1091 3969 2241     
 Yes 25 15 34 62     
Muscle relaxant      1.19 (0.86,1.65) 0.285 1.11 (0.80,1.55) 0.530
 No 5087 1052 3841 2170     
 Yes 113 54 162 133     
Analgesic drug      8.75 (5.77,13.25)*** < 0.001 8.00 (5.16,12.4)*** < 0.001
 No 960 111 73 29     
 Yes 4240 995 3930 2274     
Supportive individual psychotherapy      1.26 (1.01,1.59)* 0.044 1.03 (0.81,1.32) 0.784
 No 5042 990 3799 2006     
 Yes 158 116 204 297     
Intensive individual psychotherapy      1.63 (0.74,3.6) 0.228 1.31 (0.57,3.02) 0.519
 No 5194 1098 3975 2276     
 Yes 6 8 28 27     
Re-educative individual psychotherapy      1.57 (1.24,2)*** < 0.001 1.35 (1.04,1.74)* 0.024
 No 5049 1008 3826 1998     
 Yes 151 98 177 305     
Stretching exercise      1.30 (1.02,1.66)* 0.033 1.26 (0.99,1.62) 0.064
 No 4878 1006 3677 2039     
 Yes 322 100 326 264     
Therapeutic exercise      1.52 (1.25,1.84)*** < 0.001 1.52 (1.25,1.86)*** < 0.001
 No 4591 944 3406 1827     
 Yes 609 162 597 476     
Brainwave examination, sleep or wakefulness      0.84 (0.56,1.26) 0.405 0.88 (0.58,1.33) 0.539
 No 5106 1068 3933 2236     
 Yes 94 38 70 67     
  1. CFS: chronic fatigue syndrome; CI: confidence interval; *P < .05, **P < .01, ***P < .001