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Table 2 Mortality rate and hazard ratios with 95% CIs of total mortality in relation to CMDs status

From: Cardiometabolic diseases, total mortality, and benefits of adherence to a healthy lifestyle: a 13-year prospective UK Biobank study

CMDs status Events Person-years Mortality rate per 1000 person-year Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Model 1b Model 2 c
No 16,287 4,055,268 4.0 (3.9–4.1) 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
Yes 5186 404,587 12.8 (12.5–13.2) 1.57 (1.51–1.64) 1.56 (1.50–1.63)
Only one 4152 361,739 11.5 (11.1–11.8) 1.50 (1.44–1.56) 1.49 (1.43–1.56)
 Diabetes 1655 154,457 10.7 (10.2–11.2) 1.50 (1.41–1.59) 1.48 (1.40–1.57)
 Stroke 561 51,280 10.9 (10.1–11.9) 1.56 (1.43–1.70) 1.52 (1.40–1.66)
 CHD 1936 156,002 12.4 (11.9–13.0) 1.48 (1.41–1.57) 1.49 (1.41–1.58)
Any two 940 40,809 23.0 (21.6–24.5) 2.19 (2.03–2.36) 2.17 (2.01–2.34)
 CHD & stroke 175 8088 21.6 (18.0–26.1) 2.13 (1.83–2.48) 2.11 (1.81–2.45)
 Diabetes & stroke 112 5167 21.7 (18.0–26.1) 2.17 (1.80–2.62) 2.15 (1.78–2.60)
 Diabetes & CHD 653 27,553 23.7 (21.9–25.6) 2.20 (2.01–2.41) 2.20 (2.01–2.40)
Three (Diabetes & CHD & stroke) 94 2040 46.1 (37.6–56.4) 3.90 (3.17–4.80) 3.75 (3.04–4.61)
P for trend a      < 0.001  < 0.001
  1. CHD, coronary heart disease; CMD, cardiometabolic disease
  2. aP value of linear trend was calculated by included the number of CMDs as a continuous variable in the model
  3. bModel 1 adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, Townsend deprivation index, qualifications, employment, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, hypertension, use of aspirin, and use of insulin
  4. cModel 2 further adjusted for lifestyle