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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Association of monocyte-lymphocyte ratio and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the U.S. population with type 2 diabetes

Characteristics Total NPDR PDR  
n 367 340 27 p
Age (years) 63.8 ± 10.8 63.9 ± 11.0 63.0 ± 7.8 0.691
Sex, n (%)   0.242
Male 196 (53.4) 185 (54.4) 11 (40.7)  
Female 171 (46.6) 155 (45.6) 16 (59.3)  
Race/ethnicity, n (%)    0.104
Non-Hispanic white 133 (36.2) 128 (37.6) 5 (18.5)  
Non-Hispanic black 121 (33.0) 109 (32.1) 12 (44.4)  
Mexican American 76 (20.7) 71 (20.9) 5 (18.5)  
Other 37 (10.1) 32 (9.4) 5 (18.5)  
Marriage, n (%)    0.245
Married 225 (61.3) 212 (62.4) 13 (48.1)  
Unmarried 21 ( 5.7) 19 (5.6) 2 (7.4)  
Other 121 (33.0) 109 (32.1) 12 (44.4)  
BMI, n (%)   0.161
Underweight/normal 46 (12.6) 41 (12.1) 5 (19.2)  
Overweight 129 (35.2) 124 (36.5) 5 (19.2)  
Obese 191 (52.2) 175 (51.5) 16 (61.5)  
Smoking status, n (%)   0.171
Current smokers 58 (15.8) 57 (16.8) 1 (3.7)  
Former smokers 122 (33.2) 112 (32.9) 10 (37.0)  
Never smokers 187 (51.0) 171 (50.3) 16 (59.3)  
HbA1C, n (%)   0.351
 < 6.5 91 (24.9) 87 (25.7) 4 (15.4)  
 >  = 6.5 274 (75.1) 252 (74.3) 22 (84.6)  
HGB(g/dL) 13.7 ± 1.7 13.8 ± 1.7 12.7 ± 1.4  < 0.001
CRP 0.6 ± 1.1 0.6 ± 1.1 0.8 ± 0.9 0.388
VitD (nmol/L) 53.0 ± 22.1 52.9 ± 21.7 54.0 ± 27.4 0.803
HDL (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 0.617
Total cholesterol(mmol/L) 4.9 ± 1.3 4.9 ± 1.3 5.2 ± 1.2 0.175
Family history of diabetes, n (%) 237 (64.6) 216 (63.5) 21 (77.8) 0.354
Duration of diabetes (years) 15.4 ± 11.0 14.8 ± 11.1 21.6 ± 8.8 0.002
  1. NPDR, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy; BMI, body mass index; HGB, hemoglobin; CRP, C-reactive protein; Vitamin D, Vit D; HDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol