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Table 2 Side effects occurring during ketogenic phase

From: VLCKD: a real time safety study in obesity

Parameters N (%) Time to onset from the beginning of VLCKD ± SD (days) Duration (mean ± SD) (days) Medically treated N (%) and which remedy N (%)
Headache 48 (45.3) 4.23 ± 4.99 7.43 ± 8.84 19 (17.9)9 (47.36) ibuprofen
9 (47.36) paracetamol
1 (5.26) indomethacin
Dry mouth 41 (43.5) 3.83 ± 3.22 19.95 ± 10.35
Dizziness 17 (16) 6.12 ± 7.26 9.35 ± 7.37
Hypotension 19 (17.9) 4.68 ± 4.69 11.31 ± 10.99
Visual disturbances 5 (4.7) 5.40 ± 4.72 8 ± 5.43
Low blood sugar 1 (0.9) 2 1
Lethargy 49 (46.2) 4.66 ± 4.40 15.9 ± 9.6
Halitosis 49 (46.2) 2.90 ± 1.52 22.06 ± 8.24 18 (17)
15(83.33) chewing gum
2 (11.11) oral spray
1 (5.55) mouthwash
Diarrhoea 13 (12.3) 13.31 ± 11.48 10.08 ± 11.48
Constipation 30 (28.3) 11.2 ± 16.20 16.37 ± 8.95 8 (7.5)
8 (100) osmotic laxative
Vomiting/nausea 16 (15.1) 4.81 ± 4.94 4.19 ± 3.25 2 (1.9)
1 (50) metoclopramide
1 (50) antacid
Hyperuricemia 11 (10.4) 8 (7.5)
8 (100) allopurinol
Urolithiasis 0
Gallbladder disease 0
Hair loss 16 (15.1) 15 ± 9.75 15 ± 20.19 3 (2.8)
3 (100) hair supplement
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD or n (%)