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Table 4 Adjusted HR of SSNHL in the moderate and high concentration groups compared to the values in the low concentration group

From: Long-term exposure to air pollution and the risk of developing sudden sensorineural hearing loss

Pollutants Levels n of SSNHL Person-Years IR aHR 95%CI p
PM2.5 (μg/m3) Continuous     1.01 0.99 1.02 0.311
  Low 92 251,573 0.37 Reference    
  Moderate 133 238,157 0.56 1.56 1.20 2.04 0.001
  High 128 262,340 0.49 1.33 1.01 1.75 0.043
SO2 (ppb) Continuous     1.01 0.96 1.05 0.811
  Low 127 253,994 0.50 Reference    
  Moderate 111 231,810 0.48 1.01 0.78 1.31 0.927
  High 115 266,267 0.43 0.96 0.74 1.24 0.754
CO (ppm) Continuous     2.16 1.50 3.11  < 0.001
  Low 124 265,999 0.47 Reference    
  Moderate 93 226,689 0.41 0.96 0.73 1.26 0.754
  High 136 259,382 0.52 1.27 0.99 1.65 0.065
NO (ppb) Continuous     1.02 1.01 1.03  < 0.001
  Low 119 255,830 0.47 Reference    
  Moderate 109 237,175 0.46 1.14 0.86 1.49 0.363
  High 125 259,066 0.48 1.22 0.93 1.61 0.151
NO2 (ppb) Continuous     1.02 1.01 1.04 0.012
  Low 114 235,391 0.48 Reference    
  Moderate 101 250,758 0.40 0.93 0.71 1.23 0.625
  High 138 265,922 0.52 1.25 0.96 1.63 0.105
  1. n of SSNHL: number of patients with hearing loss; IR: incidence rate (per 1000 person-years); IR: incidence rate; aHR: adjusted hazard ratio in the multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, insurance fee, urbanization, HT, DM, stroke, head injury, CKD, IHD, alcoholism, nicotine dependence, COPD, asthma, RA, impacted cerumen, suppurative and unspecified otitis media, chronic serous otitis media, and otosclerosis