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Table 1 The details and characteristics of the included studies

From: What can the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 tell us: a meta-analysis

Study Design Country Case Male(%) Age (mean) Neurologic manifestations
Headache Dizziness Altered mental status Intracerebral haemorrhage Seizure Stroke Myalgia Smell impairment Taste dysfunction Vision impairment Alteration of consciousness Encephalopathy Encephalitis Guillan-Barré Syndrome (GBS)
José Manuel Abalo-Lojo et al. [15] RS Spain 131 42.6 50.4 51 8 / / / / 61 77 74 / / / / /
Türkan Acar et al. [16] RS Turkey 30 43.3 51.6 10 3 / / / / 15 10 / / / / / /
Pinky Agarwa et al. [17] RS USA 404 48.8 61 82 31 86 / 2 3 131 18 27 5 / / / /
H Avc et al. [18] RS Turkey 1197 58.5 49.07 173 / / / / / 257 529 526 / / / / /
Ameen Biadsee et al. [19] CS Israel 128 45.3 36.25 52 / / / / / 60 49 42 / / / / /
Aylin C¸alıca Utku et al. [20] RS Turkey 143 53.9 55.63 43 / / / / / 49 33 51 / / / / /
Edoardo Caronna et al. [21] PS Spain 130 49.2 53.9 97 19 / / / / 39 / / / / / / /
Eleonore Chary et al. [22] PS,CS * France 115 30 47 62 / / / / / 57 / / / / / / /
Yanan Li et al. [23] RS China 219 40.6 53.3 / / / 1 / 10 / / / / / / / /
Aaron Rothstein et al. [24] RS USA 844 48 59 / / / 8 / 20 / / / / / / / /
James E Siegler et al. [25] RS,cohort study* USA 172 59.5 69.5 / / / 28 / 156 / / / / / / / /
Prof Stéphane Kremer et al. [26] RS * France 37 81 61 4 / / / 5 / / / / / 27 / / /
Veria Vacchiano et al. [27] Questionnaire Italy 108 57 59 46 11 / / / / 37 40 66 / / / / /
Ot´avio Melo Esp´ındola et al. [28] CS Brazil 58 43.5 51.6 14 / / 6 / / / / / / / 24 / 6
Jerome R. Lechien et al. [29] Questionnaire Europe 1420 32.3 39.17 998 / / / / / 887 997 770 / / / / /
Imen Kacem et al. [30] RS Tunisia 646 53.9 42.17 279 / / / / / 241 245 238 48 / / / /
B.C. Yoon et al. [31] RS USA 26 61.5 63.6 2 / 14 11 1 2 / / / / / / / /
Chaolin Huang et al. [32] PS China 41 73 49 3 / / / / / 18 / / / / / / /
Manuel Requena et al. [33] PS Spain 2050 56 66.5 / / / 4 / 21 / / / / / / / /
Jennifer A. Frontera et al. [34] PS * USA 4491 66 71 / / / / 74 84 / / / / / 309 / 3
Timothée Klopfenstein et al. [35] RS France 54 33 47 44 / / / / / 40 54 / 4 / / / /
Maryam Jalessi et al. [36] PS Iran 92 67.4 52.94 20 / / / / / 57 22 15 / / / / /
David García-Azorín et al. [37] CSS Spain 104 36.5 56.7 104 3 10 / / / 44 67 / / 6 / / /
Samar Iltaf Sr et al. [38] CSS PAK 350 70 49.5 21 12 / / 1 / / 5 / / 7 / 3 1
Aamir Makda et al. [39] CSS PAK 114 54.4 51 18 20 / / 1 / / 9 9 2 10 / / /
Pedro Augusto Sampaio Rocha-Filho et al. [40] CSS Brazil 73 63 58 47 / / / / / / 28 29 / / / / /
Abdelkader Mahammedi et al. [41] RS * Italy 108 64 69 13 4 64 6 10 34 13 2 / / / / / /
Antoine Guilmot et al. [42] PS Belgium 15 80 62 / / / / 2 / / 2 / / / / / /
Jerome R. Lechien et al. [43] RS * Belgium 2013 34 39.5 1411 / / / / / 1244 1754 1136 / / / / /
Sara Mariotto et al. [44] RS Italy 107 76.6 65.8 12 6 / / / / 16 15 22 / 13 / / /
Claudio Liguori et al. [45] PS Italy 103 57.3 55 40 27 / / / / 25 40 48 / / / / /
Antoniangela Cocco et al. [46] Questionnaire Italy 78 52.6 53.7 52 34 / / / / / / / 25 / / / /
Nao Yan et al. [47] RS, cohort study China 1682 48.9 50 216 15 / / / / 311 / / / / / / /
Elodie Meppiel et al. [48] RS * France 222 61.3 65 24 5 117 5 21 52 / 7 4 / / 67 21 15
Hisham Salahuddin et al. [49] RS * USA 574 48.1 62.83 82 40 / / 5 7 80 37 43 / / 143 / /
Rishu Garg et al. [50] CSS India 106 61 49.07 24 20 / / / / 20 26 35 / / / / /
Adalberto STUDART-NETO et al. [9] RS Brazil 89 61.8 57.4 3 2 / 2 4 11 18 8 3 / 35 40 / /
M Petrocelli et al. [51] Cohort study Italy 301 25 43.6 133 / / / / / 128 141 114 / / / / /
Daniel J. Lee et al. [52] CSS Toronto 56 41.1 38 10 / / / / / / 31 32 / / / / /
Yujie Liang et al. [53] RS China 86 51.2 25.5 12 / / / / / 8 34 33 / / / / /
Timothée Klopfenstein et al. [54] RS France 70 41 57 51 / / / / / 41 37 34 3 / / / /
Weixi Xiong et al. [55] RS,cohort study* China 917 55 48.7 2 / / / / 10 / / / / 25 / / /
Jerome R. Lechien et al. [56] PS * Europe 417 36.9 36.9 / / / / / / / 357 342 / / / / /
Yonghyun Lee et al. [57] RS Korea 3191 36.4 44 / / / / / / / 389 353 / / / / /
Ömer Karadaş et al. [58] PS Turkey 239 55.6 46.46 64 16 / / / / 36 18 16 8 23 / / 1
Benoit Tudrej et al. [59] CSS France 816 35 45 359 / / / / / 166 156 188 / / / / /
Luigi Angelo Vaira et al. [60] RS Italy 72 37.5 49.2 30 / / / / / / 14 9 / / / / /
Valeria Dell’Era et al. [61] CSS Italy 355 54.1 50 / / / / / / / 237 232 / / / / /
Luis Antonio Díaz et al. [62] RS Chile 7016 50 40 3040 / / / / / 3082 / / / / / / /
Ruth Levinson et al. [63] RS Israel 42 54.8 34 20 9 / / / / 24 14 15 / / / / /
Paolo J. Fantozzi et al. [64] RS,cohort study Italy 111 52.3 57 / / / / / / 3 46 66 / / / / /
Andy Jian Kai Chua et al. [65] Cohort study Singapore 31 / / / / / / / / / 14 / / / / / /
Alvaro Beltrán-Corbellini et al. [66] Case–control study * Spain 79 60.8 61.6 / / / / / / / 25 28 / / / / /
Giacomo Spinato et al. [67] RS UK 202 48 56 86 28 / / / / / / / / / / / /
Nitesh Gupta et al. [68] PS India 200 58 40.03 22 / / / / / 54 1 / / / / / /
Marco Luigetti et al. [69] RS Italy 213 / 70.2 10 3 / / 6 2 20 13 6 / / 86 1 /
Erdal Sakalli et al. [70] Questionnaire Turkey 172 48.8 37.8 17 / / / / / 16 18 11 / / / / /
Eva Jiménez et al. [71] RS,CS Spain 1549 57.5 69 133 / / / / 11 291 41 / / / / / /
Yihui Huang et al. [72] RS China 34 41.2 56.24 2 / / / / / / / / / / / / /
Souheil Zayet et al. [73] RS France 70 41 57 51 / / / / / 41 37 34 3 / / / /
Tyler Scullen et al. [74] RS,CSS USA 27 52 59.8 2 / 26 / / / / / 1 / / 20 / /
Ling Mao et al. [8] RS,CS China 214 40.7 52.7 28 36 / / 1 / / 11 12 3 16 / / /
Brad Tyson et al. [75] RS USA 71 47 79 5 9 47 / 3 2 11 / / / / / / /
Alex Carignan MD MSc et al. [76] Case − control study Canada 134 47.8 57.1 87 27 / / / / 76 69 85 6 / / / /
D. Hornuss et al. [77] Case − control study Germany 45 55.6 56 10 / / / / / / 18 / / / / / /
Firouzeh Heidari et al. [78] CS Iran 23 34.8 37.4 / / / / / / 4 16 / / / / / /
Kevin N. Sheth et al. [79] PS,cohort study USA 20 85 80 / / / 1 / / / / / / / / / /
Carol H. Yan MD et al. [80] CSS USA 59 49.2 / 39 / / / / / 37 40 42 / / / / /
A. Mahammedi et al. [81] RS * USA 135 64 68.2 / / / 14 / / / / / / / / / /
A. Radmanesh et al. [82] RS, CS USA 242 62 68.7 / / 102 11 / / / / / / / / / /
E. Lin et al. [83] RS USA 278 59 71.8 / / / / / / / / / / / / / /
François Lersy et al. [84] RS France 58 66 62 3 / / / 6 / / / / / / 47 / /
Rajesh Benny et al. [85] RS * India 100 63 57 21 / / 9 18 78 / / / / / / / /
Deusdedit Branda ˜o Neto et al. [86] PS Brazil 655 35.3 37.7 143 / / / / / / 539 502 / / / / /
Eman M. Khedr et al. [87] RS, case–control study* Egypt 439 54.5 62.8 / / / / / 53 / / / / / / / /
Shin-Woo Kim et al. [88] RS * Korea 2254 35.8 58 378 / / / / / 385 27 / / 24 / / /
Xiaolong Yao et al. [89] RS China 2474 49.9 61 / / / / / 25 511 / / / 66 / / /
G.-u. Kim et al. [90] RS Korea 172 66 26 54 32 / / / / 54 68 58 / / / / /
Nathan J Brendish et al. [91] PS,cohort study UK 197 57.4 68 73 / / / / / 62 47 / / / / / /
L. Cleret de Langavant et al. [92] RS France 26 73.1 58.3 11 / / / / 4 / / / / / 6 8 2
Carlos DF de Souza et al. [93] RS,CSS Brazil 9807 47.5 70.21 1980 / / / / / 868 / / / / / / /
Daniel Schonfeld et al. [94] RS Argentina 207,079 50 42.9 93,939 / / / 435 / 55,812 53,273 / / / / / /
Raphael L. Tuma et al. [95] RS,CS Brazil 55 68 61.2 / / / / / / / / / / / 43 / /
Souheil Zayet et al. [96] RS France 95 16.8 39.8 74 / / / / / 71 60 62 / / / / /
Souheil Zayet et al. [97] RS France 62 39 56 48 / / / / / 38 32 / / / / 1 /
Seyed Hadi Samimi Ardestani et al. [98] CSS * Iran 311 71.7 47 45 / / / / / 104 207 129 / / / / /
Andrea Pilotto et al. [99] RS Italy 147 49 73.1 2 / 38 / 10 / / / / / / / / /
Anne Schneider et al. [100] RS Germany 87 44.8 37 26 / / / / / / 44 / / / / / /
Shaista Alam et al. [101] RS USA 17 58.8 61 / / / 2 3 11 / / / / / / / /
Behnam Sabayan et al. [102] CS Iran 15 80 65 / / / 1 / 14 / / / / / / / /
Ryan HW Cho et al. [103] PS,CSS China 83 57.8 36.4 / / / / / / / 39 36 / / / / /
Fan-Yun Lan et al. [104] RS USA 83 27.7 43.9 34 / / / / / 47 / / / / / / /
Nishanth Dev et al. [105] RS, case–control study India 55 58 36 / / / / / / / 53 41 / / / / /
N’dri Juliette Kadiane-Oussou et al. [106] RS France 55 58.2 68.5 25 / / / / / 39 17 18 2 / / / /
Udo Zifko et al. [107] RS Austria 82 53.7 56 25 13 / / 1 4 5 22 25 / / / / /
Hiroki Nakanishi et al. [108] RS Japan 60 55 51.4 13 3 / / / / / 19 18 / / / / /
Wang-Huei Sheng et al. [109] PS China 217 46.5 33 / / / / / / / 73 62 / / / / /
Caizheng Yu et al. [110] RS China 1663 50.4 64 / / / / / / 57 / / / / / / /
Shenae Samuels et al. [111] RS USA 1537 47.4 51 219 / / / 6 / 439 / / / 60 / / /
Javier Trigo et al. [112] RS Spain 576 56.7 67.2 137 / / / / / 139 146 / / / / / /
Eric M. Liotta et al. [113] RS USA 509 55.2 58.5 192 151 / / 4 7 228 58 81 / / 162 1 /
Javier A. Membrilla et al. [114] CSS Spain 45 37.8 40.4 39 / / / / / 23 28 / / / / / /
Alfonso Coppola et al. [115] PS Italy 73 71.2 69.75 29 / / / / / / / / / / / / /
Sarah I.M. Janus et al. [116] RS Netherlands 88 27.3 83.5 17 / / / 1 / / / / / / / / /
Piotr Tekiela et al. [117] RS * USA 4491 / / / / / / 539 629 / / / / / 2290 / /
Alberto J. Guillén Martínez et al. [118] RS Spain 126 50 51.46 63 / / / / / / 79 75 / / / / /
Aline Mendes et al. [119] RS,CSS Switzerland 265 43 85.9 / / / / / 11 / / / / / / / /
Sara Radmard et al. [120] RS,CS USA 33 60.6 56.1 / / / / 9 5 / / / / / 12 / /
Russell R. Kempker et al. [121] RS USA 51 / / / / / / / / 28 26 27 / / / / /
Patrick Dawson et al. [122] RS USA 42 53 21 32 / / / / / 24 18 24 / / / / /
Vanessa Oliveira et al. [123] RS * Portugal 1261 51.3 70 169 8 / / 19 / 114 52 47 / 122 / / /
Stéphane Kremer et al. [124] RS * France 64 67 65 10 / / / 1 17 / 2 4 / 25 / 8 /
Nicola Rifino et al. [125] RS Italy 1760 66 64.9 3 / 49 / 10 37 / / / / / / 5 17
Pria Anand et al. [126] PS USA 74 57 64 13 5 39 / 15 14 18 2 / / 3 26 / /
Fernando Daniel Flores-Silva et al. [127] PS,CSS Mexico 1072 65 53.2 76 4 11 / 9 9 75 11 14 / / / 2 /
Juan Carlos Garcia-Monco et al. [128] PS Spain 100 62 63.5 44 36 / / 2 / 43 / / / / 9 / /
Carlos Manuel Romero-Sánchez et al. [129] RS * Spain 841 56.2 66.42 119 51 / 3 6 11 145 41 52 / / / 1 /
Emad Nader Eskandar et al. [130] RS * USA 4711 53.3 66.3 / / 258 / 26 55 / / / / / / / /
Aravinthan Varatharaj et al. [131] PS UK 153 48 71 / / 39 9 / 57 / / / / / 9 7 /
Xudong He et al. [132] RS China 77 49.4 56 4 9 / / / / 18 1 / / / / / /
Suman Kushwaha et al. [133] CSS India 14 50 41.5 4 / / / 5 2 / 2 / / / / / 1
Alberto Romagnolo et al. [134] RS Italy 344 59.3 61.5 / / / / / / 6 7 / / / / / /
Sonia M. D. Brucki et al. [135] RS Brazil 63 50.8 60 1 / / / 5 25 / / / / / 17 / 1
Denise Battaglini et al. [136] RS Italy 94 78.7 61.6 / / / / 2 3 / / / / / 2 / /
Sofía Portela- Sánchez et al. [137] PS Spain 71 70.4 69 / / / 3 6 16 / / / / / 15 / /
Mehran Ghaffari et al. [138] RS Iran 361 59.3 61.9 109 34 41 4 10 8 174 69 69 / / 11 / 1
David T. Chuang et al. [139] RS USA 56 43 69.2 7 / / 2 6 18 / / / 3 25 / / /
Man Amanat et al. [140] PS * Iran 873 63.7 60.71 110 104 / / / / 217 / / / / / / /
Siyuan Fan et al. [141] RS China 86 62.8 66.6 8 6 / / / 6 15 / / / / / / /
Giovanna Travi et al. [142] RS Italy 901 51.7 64 39 / / / 19 53 / / / / / / 5 /
Hatice Yuksel et al. [143] RS Turkey 204 58.5 67.22 28 32 139 / 27 22 / / / / 132 / / /
Verena Rass et al. [144] PS,cohort study * Austria 135 61 56 / / / / 1 1 / 1 / / / 2 / 1
Marco H. Carcamo Garcia et al. [145] PS, CSS Peru 199 43 43 143 68 / / 1 / 92 80 81 17 7 / / /
Juan Carlos García-Moncó et al. [146] PS, CSS Spain 35 71 66 3 / / / 2 3 / / / / / / / /
David García-Azorín et al. [147] RS * Spain 233 54.9 61.1 30 / 55 / 27 63 / 41 / / / / / /
David García- Azorí et al. [148] RS,cohort study Spain 576 56.6 67.19 137 11 98 / 3 / 139 146 / / / / / /
Ummehan Ermis et al. [149] PS, CSS Germany 53 60 63 11 6 / / / / / 14 8 / / 2 / /
Andrea Giorgianni et al. [150] RS Italy 26 46.1 70.6 1 3 / / / / / / / / / / 1 /
A. Patel et al. [151] RS UK 141 58.9 45.6 / / / / / / 93 80 89 / / / / /
Fatemeh Sadat Mirfazeli et al. [152] RS Iran 201 100 51.84 80 / / / 4 2 / 68 66 / / / / /
Fazilet Altin et al. [153] PS * Turkey 81 50.6 54.16 / / / / / / / 50 22 / / / / /
Kuganathan Ramasamy et al. [154] RS Malaysia 145 62.1 43 8 1 / / / / / 31 34 / / / / /
Alberto Paderno et al. [155] PS,cohort study Italy 151 37 45 / / / / / / / 126 135 / / / / /
Marlene M. Speth et al. [156] PS, CSS USA 103 48.5 46.8 / / / / / / / 63 67 / / / / /
Kunal Thakur et al. [157] PS India 250 57.6 / 124 / / / / / 98 179 79 / / / / /
Müge Özçelik Korkmaz et al. [158] PS,cohort study Turkey 116 50 57.24 43 37 / / / / / 44 48 / / / / /
Elif Elibol et al. [159] RS Turkey 155 42.2 36.3 / / / / / / / 55 25 / / / / /
Jerome R. Lechien et al. [160] RS France 86 34.9 41.7 42 / / / / / 30 53 / / / / / /
G. O’Sullivan et al. [161] RS, case–control study Ireland 102 23 44.1 36 / / / / / 30 4 4 / / / / /
Edith L. Graham et al. [162] PS USA 50 34 43.7 32 20 / / / / 30 37 32 9 / / / /
Kate Gregorevic et al. [163] RS Australia 106 40.6 84.3 7 7 / / / / / / / / / / / /
Hao Lv et al. [164] RS * China 196 44.9 50.6 11 / / / / / 26 16 9 / / / / /
Agathe Nouchi et al. [165] CSS France 390 51.8 50.5 148 / / / / / / 129 130 / / / / /
Shima Shahjouei et al. [166] PS * USA 432 57.6 65.7 / / / 91 / 323 / / / / / / / /
Patricia Bustos et al. [167] RS Chile 458 47.4 46.35 216 / / / / / 281 / / / / / / /
Adnan A. Mubaraki et al. [168] RS Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 1022 60.9 / 520 / / / / / 605 542 525 / / / / /
Egehan Salepci et al. [169] CSS Turkey 223 50.7 51 59 5 / / / / 113 71 77 / / / / /
J. Zhang et al. [170] RS,cohort study China 663 48.4 55.6 20 23 / / / / 63 / / / / / / /
Alberto Paderno et al. [171] CSS Italy 508 56 55 198 / / / / / / 283 321 / / / / /
Izquierdo-Domínguez A et al. [172] PS, CSS * Spain 846 52.7 56.8 / / / / / / / 454 442 / / / / /
Alma Tostmann et al. [173] RS The Netherlands 90 21.1 / 64 / / / / / 57 37 / / / / / /
Maria Rosaria Barillari et al. [174] RS * Italy 179 50.3 41 73 / / / / / 84 / / / / / / /
Elisabeth Ninchritz-Becerra et al. [175] PS Spain 1043 36.4 39 782 / / / / / 719 826 718 / / / / /
Brian E. Dixon et al. [176] RS USA 368 44.4 / / / / / / / 117 94 105 / / / / /
Eman M. Khedr et al. [177] RS Egypt 55 50.9 51.5 21 9 / / / / / / / / / 2 2 2
Pınar Sayın et al. [178] RS Turkey 52 69.2 61.32 / / / / / / / 21 19 / / / / /
Eric J. Chow et al. [179] RS USA 48 22.9 43 20 / / / / / 29 / / / / / / /
Altunisik E et al. [180] RS Turkey 51 56.9 52.78 9 7 / / / / / 3 3 / 4 / / /
  1. RS Retrospective study, CS case series, PS prospective study, CSS cross-sectional study
  2. *Multicenter