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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the included subjects

From: Extracellular vesicle-derived AEBP1 mRNA as a novel candidate biomarker for diabetic kidney disease

Clinical parameters Control (n = 10) T2DM (n = 15) DKD (n = 15) P-value
Age (yrs) 47.10 ± 9.27 48.00 ± 10.95 60.13 ± 11.76 0.0048
Gender (female, %) 3 (30.00%) 4(26.67%) 2 (13.33%) 0.5585
BMI 23.75 ± 3.54 26.33 ± 5.77 24.80 ± 2.16 0.3081
SBP (mmHg) 127.10 ± 16.96 123.07 ± 10.07 155.50 ± 20.18  < 0.0001
DBP (mmHg) 82.50 (78.75–85.50) 81.00 (76.00–85.00) 85.00 (81.00–90.00) 0.4273
T2DM duration (yrs) 2(0.25–8) 10 (10–20)  < 0.0001
HbA1c (%) 10.32 ± 2.24 7.34 ± 1.26  < 0.0001
eGFR (MDRD, ml/min/1.73m2) 133.95 ± 32.80 143.73 ± 30.72 18.59 ± 12.64  < 0.0001
eGFR (CKD-EPI, ml/min/1.73m2) 107.19 ± 16.53 116.34 ± 13.32 18.05 ± 12.87  < 0.0001
BUN (mmol/L) 4.75 ± 1.10 5.20 ± 1.89 19.17 ± 10.53  < 0.0001
Creatinine (µmol/L) 57.83 ± 11.96 55.70 ± 11.48 465.72 ± 342.07  < 0.0001
TC (mmol/L) 4.71 ± 0.87 4.72 ± 0.83 4.85 ± 1.82 0.9483
TG (mmol) 0.85(0.54–2.34) 1.77(1.57–3.02) 1.49 (1.27–2.95) 0.0791
LDL (mmol/L) 2.62 ± 0.84 2.55 ± 1.33 0.8668
HDL (mmol/L) 0.93 ± 0.27 0.91 ± 0.17 0.8344
24-h urine protein (g/d) 6.92 ± 3.10
Urine protein to creatinine ratio 0.06 ± 0.04 4.87 ± 2.03  < 0.0001
Albumin (g/L) 43.47 ± 1.81 40.42 ± 3.10 30.37 ± 6.26  < 0.0001
Albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g) 3.44 (0.22–6.49) 2692.30 (1251.19–4346.50)  < 0.0001
Urine β2MG (mg/L) 0.21 (0.04–0.27) 20.83 (12.07–31.28)  < 0.0001
Urine RBP (mg/L) 0.15 (0.01–0.42) 13.40 (7.80–18.54)  < 0.0001
Urine CYC (mg/L) 0.01 (0.01–0.11) 1.58 (0.82–2.21)  < 0.0001
Serum CYC (mg/L) 0.78 ± 0.07 3.64 ± 1.71  < 0.0001
Hemoglobin (g/L) 137.20 ± 8.64 141.47 ± 13.63 94.40 ± 17.76  < 0.0001
WBC (109/L) 6.15 ± 1.06 6.23 ± 1.04 6.10 ± 1.87 0.9712
Monocytes (109/L) 0.43 ± 0.07 0.45 ± 0.13 0.51 ± 0.28 0.5720
Lymphocytes (109/L) 2.11 ± 0.59 2.12 ± 0.47 1.45 ± 1.20 0.0685
Neutrophils (109/L) 3.45 ± 0.98 3.50 ± 1.03 4.12 ± 1.45 0.2756
hsCRP (mg/L) 1.51(1.13–2.88) 1.92(0.61–3.18) 0.9907
  1. Measurement data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or median and interquartile range according to normal distribution statue, categorial data was expressed as number and percentages
  2. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, T2DM type II diabetes mellitus, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, MDRD The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, CKD-EPI The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BUN blood urea nitrogen, RBP retinol-binding protein, CYC cystatin-C, WBC White Blood Cell