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Table 16 Identified scalp stimulation targets for schizophrenia

From: Potential scalp stimulation targets for mental disorders: evidence from neuroimaging studies

Cluster ID Cluster size Peak T Peak coordinates Brain regions 10–20 EEG system locations Acupoint locations Functions
x y z
SCH-1 35 5.73 − 16 58 8 L IFG/dlPFC/mPFC/PreCG 1 cm medial to Fp1 0.6 cun lateral and inferior to GV 24 Working memory, episodic memory, multiple-task coordination
SCH-2 104 7.94 − 34 40 2 R IFG/TriIFG 0.5 cm posterior to Fp1 0.6 cun anterior and inferior to GB 4 Sustaining attention, managing working memory
SCH-3 105 6.83 − 46 8 30 L IPL/PCu/AG 1 cm posterior and inferior to F3 0.6 cun anterior and inferior to GB 16 Motor sequencing/planning/learning/imagery, language processing, working memory, episodic long-term memory, visuospatial attention, visuomotor attention, executive control of behavior, processing emotions and self-reflections in decision making
SCH-4 39 6.83 − 48 − 70 − 4 L IFG/OrbIFG 1.5 cm posterior and inferior to T5 0.3 cun posterior and inferior to GB 10 Detection of light intensity, tracking visual motion patterns, visual priming, visual memory recognition, spatial working memory, inferential reasoning, visual mental imagery
SCH-5 163 10.15 − 2 22 40 L MedFG/ SupMFG/mPFC 1 cm posterior to Fz GV 22 Motor learning/imagery/control, executive control of behavior, language processing, working memory, visuospatial and visuomotor attention, inductive reasoning, pain anticipation
SCH-6 47 6.83 42 6 28 R MFG/dlPFC/mPFC 1 cm posterior and inferior to F4 0.1 cun superior and posterior to GB 4 Motor sequencing/planning/learning/imagery, language processing, working memory, episodic long-term memory, visuospatial attention, visuomotor attention, executive control of behavior, same-different discrimination
SCH-7 36 4.62 − 6 38 − 14 L MedFG/OrbMFG 0.5 cm anterior to the midpoint of Fp1 and Fp2 0.3 cun anterior to GV 24 Decision making involving reward, face-name association, nonspeech processing
SCH-8 288 10.15 46 24 24 R IPL/SMG 1 cm lateral to F4 0.3 cun lateral to GB 16 Attributing intention, theory of mind, suppressing sadness, working memory, spatial memory, recognition, recall, recognizing the emotions of others, planning, calculation, semantic and perceptual processing of odors, religiosity, attention to positive emotions
  1. SCH, schizophrenia; L, left; R, right; SFG, superior frontal gyrus; MFG, middle frontal gyrus; IFG, inferior frontal gyrus; OrbIFG, orbital inferior frontal gyrus; TriIFG, triangular inferior frontal gyrus; OperIFG, opercular inferior frontal gyrus; SupMFG, superior medial frontal gyrus; MedFG, medial frontal gyrus; OrbMFG, orbital medial frontal gyrus; MTG, middle temporal gyrus; ITG, inferior temporal gyrus; PreCG, precentral gyrus; SMA, supplementary motor area; MOG, middle occipital gyrus; cm, centimeter; cun, Chinese inches, 1 cun is about 3.33 cm; GB 4, Hanyan; GB 10, Fubai; GB 16, Muchuang; GV 22, Xinhui; GV 24, Shenting