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Table 14 Identified scalp stimulation targets for major depression

From: Potential scalp stimulation targets for mental disorders: evidence from neuroimaging studies

Cluster ID Cluster size Peak T Peak coordinates Brain regions 10–20 EEG system locations Acupoint locations Functions
x y z
MD-1 858 9.54 − 46 26 − 10 L IFG/OrbIFG/TriIFG/OperIFG/MFG/PreCG/STG 0.5 cm posterior and inferior to F7 0.6 cun anterior and inferior to GB 6 Language processing and comprehension, emotional recognition
MD-2 271 8.36 − 46 − 66 0 L MOG/MTG/ITG 1.5 cm posterior and inferior to T5 0.3 cun posterior and inferior to GB 10 Tracking visual motion patterns, feature-based attention, orientation-selective attention, visual memory recognition, spatial working memory, inferential reasoning, visual mental imagery
MD-3 351 7.17 − 2 58 20 L MedFG/SupMFG/OrbMFG/SFG Midpoint of Fp1 and Fp2 0.3 cun posterior to GV 24 Working memory, episodic memory, multiple-task coordination, decision making
MD-4 349 8.36 − 2 10 52 L MedFG/SMA 0.5 cm anterior to Cz 0.1 cun anterior to GV 21 Motor sequencing/planning/learning/imagery, language processing, working memory, episodic long-term memory, visuospatial attention, visuomotor attention, executive control of behavior, processing emotions and self-reflections in decision making
MD-5 227 6.58 2 − 54 24 R PCu/PoCG Pz 0.1 cun anterior to GV 19 Self-consciousness, attention, episodic memory retrieval, working memory, conscious perception, response inhibition, visuospatial mental operations
MD-6 769 8.95 36 28 2 R IFG/OrbIFG/TriIFG/OperIFG/MFG/PreCG 0.5 cm posterior and inferior to F8 0.3 cun inferior to GB 5 Semantic decision tasks (determining whether a word represents an abstract or a concrete entity), generation tasks (generating a verb associated with a noun), semantic retrieval/working memory processes
MD-7 236 7.17 50 − 58 24 R STG/MTG/IPL/SMG/AG Midpoint of P4 and O2 Midpoint of GB 10 and GB 18 Reading, spatial focusing of attention, theory of mind, executive control of behavior
MD-8 441 7.76 42 − 78 − 6 R IOG/MOG/STG/ITG/MTG 2 cm anterior and inferior to O2 0.6 cun posterior to GB 10 Visuo-spatial information processing, visual memory recognition, spatial working memory, visual mental imagery
  1. MD, major depression; L, left; R, right; SFG, superior frontal gyrus; MFG, middle frontal gyrus; IFG, inferior frontal gyrus; OrbIFG, orbital inferior frontal gyrus; TriIFG, triangular inferior frontal gyrus; OperIFG, opercular inferior frontal gyrus; SupMFG, superior medial frontal gyrus; MedFG, medial frontal gyrus; OrbMFG, orbital medial frontal gyrus; STG, superior temporal gyrus; MTG, middle temporal gyrus; ITG, inferior temporal gyrus; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; SMG, supramarginal gyrus; AG, angular gyrus; PreCG, precentral gyrus; PoCG, postcentral gyrus; PCu, precuneus; SMA, supplementary motor area; MOG, middle occipital gyrus; IOG, inferior occipital gyrus; cm, centimeter; cun, Chinese inches, 1 cun is about 3.33 cm. GB 5, Xuanlu; GB 6, Xuanli; GB 10, Fubai; GB 18, Chengling; GV 19, Houding; GV 21, Qianding; GV 24, Shenting