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Table 10 Identified scalp stimulation targets for anxiety disorder

From: Potential scalp stimulation targets for mental disorders: evidence from neuroimaging studies

Cluster ID Cluster size Peak T Peak coordinates Brain regions 10–20 EEG system locations Acupoint locations Functions
x y z
ANX-1 61 5.89 − 6 56 28 L SFG/SupMFG 2 cm superior to Fp1 0.1 cun lateral to GV 24 Short term memory, evaluating recency, overriding automatic responses, verbal fluency, error detection, auditory verbal attention, inferring the intention of others, inferring deduction from spatial imagery, inductive reasoning, attributing intention, empathy, self-criticisms, attention to negative emotions
ANX-2 178 6.88 − 32 26 − 6 L IFG/OrbIFG 1 cm posterior to F7 0.6 cun posterior and inferior to GB 5 Language processing and comprehension, emotional recognition
ANX-3 80 6.88 − 56 − 40 2 L MTG 1 cm anterior to T5 0.1 cun posterior and inferior to GB 8 Selective processing of text and speech, semantic processing, word/sentence generation, attribution of intentions to others
ANX-4 55 6.88 − 44 − 74 − 8 L MOG/IOG 2 cm anterior and inferior to O1 0.3 cun posterior and inferior to GB 10 Feature-extracting, shape recognition, attentional, and multimodal integrating
ANX-5 112 7.86 2 18 44 R SMA Midpoint of Fz and Cz 0.1 cun posterior to GV 22 Motor learning/imagery/control, executive control of behavior, language processing, working memory, memory retrieval, visual attention and control of eye movements, auditory imagery
ANX-6 55 4.90 38 28 42 R MFG 1 cm superior to F4 0.3 cun lateral to BL 5 Motor control, executive control of behavior, planning, language processing, working memory, memory retrieval, visuospatial and visuomotor attention, processing related to uncertainty, pain anticipation
ANX-7 101 5.89 50 22 20 R IFG/dlPFC Midpoint of F4 and F8 GB 4 Semantic tasks, suppression of response tendencies, understand the mental state of others through observation, inferring, and projecting, music perception
ANX-8 276 6.88 − 2 54 − 12 L MedFG/OrbMFG Midpoint of Fp1 and Fp2 0.6 cun anterior to GV 24 Scheduling operations in multiple tasks, decision making, working memory
ANX-9 55 12.80 28 4 − 22 R STP 1 cm lateral and inferior to Fp2 1 cun medial to EX-HN-5 Emotional learning, reward, memory modulation
  1. ANX, anxiety disorder; L, left; R, right; STP, superior temporal pole; IFG, inferior frontal gyrus; OrbIFG, orbital inferior frontal gyrus; MedFG, medial frontal gyrus; OrbMFG, orbital medial frontal gyrus; MOG, middle occipital gyrus; IOG, inferior occipital gyrus; MTG, middle temporal gyrus; dlPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; SFG, superior frontal gyrus; SupMFG, superior medial frontal gyrus; MFG, middle frontal gyrus; SMA, supplementary motor area; cm, centimeter; cun, Chinese inches, 1 cun is about 3.33 cm; EX-HN-5, Taiyang; BL 5, Wuchu; GV 22, Xinhui; GV 24, Shenting; GB 4, Hanyan; GB 5, Xuanlu; GB 8, Shuaigu; GB10, Fubai