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Table 1 Characteristics, diagnosis and perioperative features of current cohort

From: An explainable supervised machine learning predictor of acute kidney injury after adult deceased donor liver transplantation

  All (N = 780) Non-AKI (n = 350) AKI(n = 430) P value
Age (y) 50.719 (10.638) 51.051 (10.433) 50.449 (10.808) 0.295
Height (cm) 167.954 (9.065) 167.734 (6.428) 168.134 (10.753) 0.052
Weight (kg) 64.628 (11.304) 63.404 (10.889) 65.628 (11.548) 0.004
Body Mass Index 22.782 (3.574) 22.539 (3.529) 22.98 (3.602) 0.018
Preoperative LOS (d) 11 (2–26) 14 (4–28) 8 (2–23) 0.001
Diagnosis of AKI
 No AKI   350.0 (100.0%) /  
 Stage 1 AKI   / 177.0 (41.163%)  
 Stage 2 AKI   / 63.0 (14.651%)  
 Stage 3 AKI   / 190.0 (44.186%)  
 Stage 3 AKI requring CRRT   / 159.0 (36.977%)  
 AKI diagnosis during POD1    / 288 (66.977%)  
Preoperative renal function
 CKD (n) 121.0 (15.513%) 49.0 (14.0%) 72.0 (16.744%) 0.34
 AKI (n) 172.0 (22.051%) 67.0 (19.143%) 105.0 (24.419%) 0.093
 HRS (n) 33.0 (4.231%) 8.0 (2.286%) 25.0 (5.814%) 0.024
 SCr (μmol/L) 91.777 (70.334) 92.388 (68.852) 91.28 (71.593) 0.047
 BUN (mmol/L) 6.846 (5.823) 6.56 (5.218) 7.078 (6.268) 0.985
 eGFR (ml/(min*1.732)) 95.029 (32.145) 93.749 (29.966) 96.07 (33.813) 0.127
 SCr_Mean (μmol/L) 79.343 (71.641) 75.837 (65.256) 82.197 (76.402) 0.917
 Use of CRRT (n) 94.0 (12.051%) 24.0 (6.857%) 70.0 (16.279%)  < 0.001
 Frequency of CRRT (times) 2.567 (10.727) 1.351 (8.312) 3.556 (12.269)  < 0.001
Preoperative laboratory values
 HCT 0.299 (0.076) 0.312 (0.08) 0.288 (0.07)  < 0.001
 PLT(109/L) 96.026 (79.4) 116.597 (95.149) 79.281 (58.79)  < 0.001
 ALT (U/L) 126.282 (399.834) 90.349 (235.856) 155.53 (493.081) 0.004
 AST (U/L) 172.242 (538.996) 148.429 (369.227) 191.626 (644.817)  < 0.001
 TBIL (μmol/L) 250.278 (249.713) 172.311 (217.596) 313.739 (256.351)  < 0.001
 DBIL (μmol/L) 159.74 (168.516) 116.107 (152.227) 195.256 (172.907)  < 0.001
 IBIL (μmol/L) 90.537 (96.523) 56.204 (72.764) 118.483 (104.24)  < 0.001
 ALB (g/L) 35.668 (4.906) 36.212 (5.283) 35.225 (4.535) 0.023
 PT (s) 25.16 (13.483) 21.115 (9.851) 28.452 (15.064)  < 0.001
 APTT (s) 54.653 (20.923) 49.183 (16.041) 59.105 (23.267)  < 0.001
 FIB (g/L) 1.982 (1.422) 2.357 (1.372) 1.676 (1.39)  < 0.001
 INR 2.339 (1.574) 1.912 (1.397) 2.686 (1.625)  < 0.001
Etiology of liver
 Hepatitis B (n) 577.0 (73.974%) 257.0 (73.429%) 320.0 (74.419%) 0.817
 Hepatitis C (n) 17.0 (2.179%) 11.0 (3.143%) 6.0 (1.395%) 0.157
 Dual infection (n) 9.0 (1.154%) 5.0 (1.429%) 4.0 (0.93%) 0.756
 Hepatic Malignancy (n) 312.0 (40.0%) 190.0 (54.286%) 122.0 (28.372%)  < 0.001
 Cirrhosis (n) 623.0 (79.872%) 292.0 (83.429%) 331.0 (76.977%) 0.032
Preoperative complications
 MELD score 24 (22–35) 22(22–29) 30 (22–38)  < 0.001
 Portal hypertension (n) 407.0 (52.179%) 192.0 (54.857%) 215.0 (50.0%) 0.201
 Ascites (n) 321.0 (41.154%) 142.0 (40.571%) 179.0 (41.628%) 0.822
 HE (n) 180.0 (23.077%) 41.0 (11.714%) 139.0 (32.326%)  < 0.001
 Plasmapheresis (n) 7.0 (0.897%) 2.0 (0.571%) 5.0 (1.163%) 0.625
 HPS (n) 4.0 (0.513%) 1.0 (0.286%) 3.0 (0.698%) 0.766
 ARDS (n) 7.0 (0.897%) 3.0 (0.857%) 4.0 (0.93%) 0.784
 ALI (n) 0.0 (0.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) 1
 MV (n) 49.0 (6.282%) 9.0 (2.571%) 40.0 (9.302%)  < 0.001
 ICU stay (n) 439.0 (56.282%) 164.0 (46.857%) 275.0 (63.953%)  < 0.001
 Hypernatremia (n) 44.0 (5.641%) 10.0 (2.857%) 34.0 (7.907%) 0.004
 Metabolic acidosis (n) 336.0 (43.077%) 144.0 (41.143%) 192.0 (44.651%) 0.362
Donor characteristics
 Donor age (y) 39.191 (13.966) 38.894 (14.392) 39.433 (13.621) 0.755
 Donor BMI 22.578 (3.199) 22.336 (3.185) 22.779 (3.201) 0.074
 ABO incompatibility (n) 120.0 (15.385%) 38.0 (10.857%) 82.0 (19.07%) 0.002
 Donor Type     0.248
  DBD (n) 448 (57.436%) 212 (60.571%) 236 (54.884%)  
  DCD (n) 324 (41.538%) 134 (38.286%) 190 (44.186%)  
  DBCD (n) 8 (1.026%) 4 (1.143%) 4 (0.93%)  
 Steatosis of donor liver     0.002
  Steatosis grade 0 (n) 529 (67.821%) 260.0 (74.286%) 269 (62.558%)  
  Steatosis grade 1 (n) 170 (21.795%) 62.0 (17.714%) 108 (25.116%)  
  Steatosis grade 2 (n) 35 (4.487%) 9.0 (2.571%) 26 (6.047%)  
  Steatosis grade 3 (n) 1 (0.128%) 0.0 (0.0%) 1 (0.233%)  
Steatosis grade ≥ 1 206.0 (26.41%) 71.0 (20.286%) 135.0 (31.395%) 0.001
Steatosis grade ≥ 2 36.0 (4.615%) 9.0 (2.571%) 27.0 (6.279%) 0.022
 Lack of pathology assesment (n) 45 (5.769%) 19 (5.429%) 26 (6.046%) 0.721
Surgery characteristics
 Time of surgery (min) 442.713 (92.854) 425.297 (87.949) 456.888 (94.418)  < 0.001
 Time under anesthesia (min) 538.888 (97.864) 519.56 (92.679) 554.621 (99.251)  < 0.001
 Recipient warm ischemic time (min) 46.45 (12.035) 45.919 (12.183) 46.883 (11.909) 0.088
 Cold ischemic time (h) 6.255 (1.358) 6.226 (1.393) 6.278 (1.329) 0.476
 Surgical technique     0.304
  Piggyback (n) 713 (91.41%) 317 (90.571%) 396 (92.093%)  
  Split liver (n) 36 (4.615%) 15 (4.286%) 21 (4.884%)  
  Standard (n) 31 (3.974%) 18 (5.143%) 13 (3.023%)  
Intraoperative fluid and transfusion
 Crystalloid (ml) 2618.423 (2240.489) 2775.575 (2366.817) 2490.944 (2126.798) 0.094
 Colloid (ml) 124.26 (427.879) 153.448 (424.742) 100.583 (429.443) 0.006
 Albumin (ml) 218.295 (116.74) 222.629 (111.083) 214.779 (121.15) 0.483
 Transfusion
  RBC (ml) 1500.39 (1318.45) 1279.989 (1333.507) 1679.177 (1280.024)  < 0.001
  Plasma (ml) 1862.806 (1613.71) 1725.862 (1376.393) 1973.893 (1777.029) 0.063
  Cryoprecipitate (U) 30.276 (15.83) 27.359 (14.9) 32.653 (16.182)  < 0.001
 EBL (ml) 2051.489 (2027.519) 1679.857 (1890.832) 2354.685 (2086.165)  < 0.001
 Urine output (ml·kg−1·h−1) 3.104 (2.146) 3.708 (2.219) 2.613 (1.954)  < 0.001
 Ascites removal (ml) 959.665 (1889.757) 947.011 (1997.938) 969.93 (1799.531) 0.196
Intraoperative medication
 rFVIIa (mg) 0.346 (1.127) 0.211 (1.03) 0.455 (1.19)  < 0.001
 Prothrombin complex concentrate (IU) 587.692 (433.693) 554.857 (434.497) 614.419 (431.7) 0.043
 Fibrinogen (g) 0.404 (1.293) 0.342 (0.735) 0.453 (1.609) 0.567
 Terlipressin (mg) 0.322 (0.551) 0.195 (0.447) 0.426 (0.604)  < 0.001
 Norepinephrine, bolus (mg) 0.008 (0.022) 0.006 (0.018) 0.009 (0.024) 0.353
 Epinephrine, bolus (mg) 0.028 (0.299) 0.011 (0.161) 0.042 (0.376) 0.785
 Dopamine, bolus (mg) 12.0 (1.538%) 4.0 (1.143%) 8.0 (1.86%) 0.874
 Bicarbonate (ml) 127.006 (234.266) 89.429 (221.225) 157.593 (240.316)  < 0.001
 Use of norepinephrine, continuous (n) 649.0 (83.205%) 301.0 (86.0%) 348.0 (80.93%) 0.074
 Use of epinephrine, continuous (n) 553.0 (70.897%) 250.0 (71.429%) 303.0 (70.465%) 0.829
 Use of dopamine, continuous (n) 245.0 (31.41%) 106.0 (30.286%) 139.0 (32.326%) 0.594
 Use of aramine (n) 34.0 (4.359%) 7.0 (2.0%) 27.0(6.279%) 0.006
Intraoperative incident
 Cardiac arrest (n) 21.0 (2.692%) 3.0 (0.857%) 18.0(4.186%) 0.008
 Acidosis (n) 322.0 (41.282%) 133.0 (38.0%) 189.0 (43.953%) 0.108
 Hypotension (n) 649.0 (83.205%) 298.0 (85.143%) 351.0 (81.628%) 0.226
  1. BMI, body mass index; LOS, length of stay; MELD, model for end stage liver disease. CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome;ICU, intensive care unit; HCT, hematocrit; PLT, platelets; WBC, white blood cell; ALT, alanine transaminase; AST, aspartate transaminase; TBIL, total bilirubin; DBIL, direct bilirubin; IBIL, indirect bilirubin; ALB, albumin; SCr, serum creatinine; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; PT, prothrombin time; APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; FIB, fibrinogen; INR, international normalized ratio; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; DBD, donation after brain death; DCD, donation after circulatory death; DBCD, donation after brain death followed by circulatory death; GA, general anesthesia; RBC, red blood cell; EBL, estimated blood loss; rFVIIa, recombinant activated factor VII