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Table 1 Summary of study and patient characteristics

From: A systematic review of nutraceutical interventions for mitochondrial dysfunctions in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

References Year Study design Treatment Reported adverse effects Treatment duration Dx Sample (n)   Age (years), mean (SD)   Sex, female %   Illness duration,
Mean (SD)
  BMI (kg m−2), mean (SD)   Weight (kg), mean (SD)  
Tx Con Tx Con Tx Con Tx Con Tx Con Tx Con
Castro-Marrero et al 2015 RCT,
PAR
Coenzyme Q10 plus NADH No reported adverse effects 8- weeks Fukuda criteria 39 34 NR NR NR NR 15.4 (8.9) 14.7 (6.2) 26.7 (5.2) 25.9 (2.4) 68.5 (14.6) 72.1 (13.7)
Castro-Marrero et al 2016 RCT, PAR Coenzyme Q10 plus NADH No reported adverse effects 8- weeks Fukuda criteria 39 34 49.3 (7.1) 49.1 (8.4) 100% 100% 15.4 (8.9) 14.7 (6.2) 23.7 (5.2) 22.3 (2.4) 68.5 (14.6) 72.1 (13.7)
Forsyth et al 1999 RCP, CO NADH overly stimulated,
mild loss of appetite, heartburn, increased incidence of gas and an odd taste and dryness in mouth
4-weeks Fukuda criteria 26 NA 39.6 NA 65% NA 7.2 NA NR NA NR NA
Fukuda et al 2016 RCT, PAR Ubiquinol-10 No serious adverse effects 8-weeks Fukuda criteria 17 14 34.8 (9.36) 39.5 (8.50) 76% 86% NR NR NR NR NR NR
   OPT Ubiquinol-10 No serious adverse effects 12-weeks Fukuda criteria 20 NA 36.8 (6.88) NA 75 NA 10.25 (5.35) NA NR NA NR NA
Kaiser et al 2015 POC KPAX002 Dry mouth 12-weeks Fukuda criteria 15 NA 45.4 NA 53.3% NA 12.4 NA NR NA NR NA
Menon et al 2017 OPT nutraceutical combination No serious adverse effects 16-weeks Fukuda criteria 10 NA 36.3 (10.46) NA 70% NA 11 (7.04) NA NR NA NR NA
Montoya et al 2018 RCT, PAR KPAX002 No significant adverse effects 12-weeks Fukuda criteria 67 68 42.8 42.3 77.8% 66.2% 11.3 11.8 NR NR NR NR
Ostojic et al 2016 RCT, CO Guanidinoacetic Acid No reported adverse effects 12- weeks Fukuda criteria 21 NA 39.3 (8.8) NA 100% NA NR NA NR NA 62.8 (8.5) NA
Vermeulen et al 2004 OPT ALC and PLC overstimulation and sleeplessness 24-weeks Fukuda criteria ALC: 30
PLC: 30
ALC + PLC: 30
NA ALC: 37 (11)
PLC: 38 (11)
ALC + PLC: 42 (12)
NA ALC: 76.7%
PLC: 76.7%
ALC + PLC: 76.7%
NA ALC: 5.5 (1.0–23.0)a
PLC: 3.0 (0.5–25.0)a
ALC + PLC: 6.0 (1.0–21.0)a
NA NR NA NR NA
  1. aMedian (range)
  2. ALC, Acetyl-l-Carnitine; BMI, Body Mass Index; CO, Cross-over design; Con, Control; NA, Not Applicable; NR, Not Recorded; OPT, Open labelled pilot trial; PLC, Propionyl-l-Carnitine; POC, Proof of Concept; RCT, Randomized Control Trial; SD, Standard Deviation; Tx, treatment