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Fig. 1 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 1

From: Exercise rescues mitochondrial coupling in aged skeletal muscle: a comparison of different modalities in preventing sarcopenia

Fig. 1

Concurrent training as a mitoprotective and anti-sarcopenic intervention. Exercise, both in the forms of endurance and resistance training, improves ETC electron flux and mitochondrial oxidative coupling. Specifically, resistance training increases the ratio of complex IV/complex I + III, which in turn minimizes electron leakage and thus ROS generation from complexes I and III, the main cellular sources of superoxide. At the level of mtDNA, this decreases oxidative damage of mtDNA and reduces prevalence of deletion-mutations. In addition, when RT is coupled with endurance training, or with endurance training alone, mtDNA abundance, mitochondrial protein synthesis, and mitochondrial biogenesis all increase. At the level of muscle fibers, these exercise-induced changes prevent age-associated aberrant COX/SDH++ phenotypes and preserve type II muscle fibers, altogether functionally staving off sarcopenia. Figure created with BioRender.com

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