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Table 3 Metabolic parameters at euthanization

From: Insulin treatment improves liver histopathology and decreases expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic genes in a hyperglycemic, dyslipidemic hamster model of NAFLD

Metabolic parameters CTRL NASH NASH-STZ NASH-STZ-HI
ΔFat mass (termination-treatment start) (g)c − 3.9 (± 3.7) − 0.2 (± 6.18) − 5.6 (± 3.3) 7.7 (± 3.4)*,¤
ΔLean mass (termination-treatment start) (g) 12.3 (± 9.5) 10.7 (± 7.9) 6.3 (± 9.0) 19.1 (± 3.5)¤
Epididymal fat depot (g) 1.4 (± 0.3)#,† 2.6 (± 0.5)* 1.1 (± 0.4)# 2.3 (± 0.4)*,¤
Liver weights (g/100g body weight) 2.9 (± 0.2)¤,† 5.3 (± 0.4)*,† 5.5 (± 0.4)*,† 4.6 (± 0.5)*,#,¤
Liver TG (µmol/g)a 7.4 (± 1.9)#,¤ 14.4 (± 4.5)*,¤ 48.1 (± 16.4)*,#,† 14.3 (± 4.8)*,¤
Liver cholesterol (µmol/g)a 5.6 (± 1.4)#,¤,† 70.9 (± 14.3)* 72.8 (± 13.2)* 87.3 (± 14.9)*
Liver glycogen (µmol/g) 245.6 (± 145.4)¤ 372.3 (± 93.8) 56.5 (± 94.8)*,#,† 300.9 (± 51.5)¤
Plasma 3-β-hydroxybutyrate (µmol/L) 406.5(± 257.2)¤ 464.3(± 89.8)¤ 3750(± 2150)*,#,† 451.8(± 148.5)¤
ΔHbA1c (%)c − 0.2 (± 0.2)¤ − 0.1 (± 0.2) 2.0 (± 0.7)*,† − 0.6 (± 0.4)¤
Endogenous insulin (RIIE)a 265.5 (± 295.2) 472.3 (± 406.5)¤ 97.7 (± 110.4)# NA
Exposure HI (pM) NA NA NA 246.5 (± 163.1)
Plasma free fatty acidsa (mmol/L) 0.7 (± 0.5)¤ 0.8 (± 0.5)¤ 2.0 (± 1.3)*,# 1.0 (± 0.4)
Plasma VLDL-TG (mg/dL)a 134.1 (± 61.8)#,¤,† 256.9 (± 36.5)*,¤ 1074.0 (± 389.1)*,#,† 247.0 (± 75.2)*,¤
Plasma total cholesterol (mg/dL)a 122.1 (± 18.3) 237.1 (± 25.1)* 405.7 (± 75.6)*,#,† 233.5 (± 19.0)*,¤
Plasma LDL-C (mg/dL)a 37.8 (± 22.9)¤ 24.3 (± 3.4)¤ 79.4 (± 29.0)*,#,† 28.6 (± 4.7)¤
Plasma HDL-C (mg/dL) 46.9 (± 22.3)#,† 130.7 (± 22.4)*,¤ 50.5 (± 39.5)#,† 124.8 (± 9.3)*,¤
Alanine aminotransferase (ALAT)b (U/L) 52.0 (± 21.5) 118.1 (± 53.3) 359.3 (± 250.0) 236.0 (± 88.5)
Aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT)b (U/L) 50.0 (± 23.8) 51.4 (± 21.4) 109.1(± 46.8) 83.1 (± 47.9)
Plasma haptoglobina (g/L) 1.7 (± 1.4)¤ 0.9 (± 0.3)¤ 12.3 (± 6.0)*,#,† 0.9 (± 0.1)¤
  1. HI: Human insulin; RIIE: Rat insulin immunoactivity equivalents; TG: triglyceride; VLDL: very-low-density lipoprotein; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  2. Results are presented as mean ± SD. Parameters denoted with a were ln-transformed before statistical analysis. Parameters denoted with b were not subjected to statistical analysis due to there being too few analysis results in the NASH-STZ group (n = 2–3). Parameters denoted with c were analysed by non-parametic statistical method (Kruskal–Wallis). Superscripts (*,#,¤,†) indicate significant differences (p < 0.05 or less) in readouts compared to CTRL-, NASH-, NASH-STZ- and NASH-STZ-HI-group respectively. Sample sizes: CTRL (n = 9), NASH (n = 10), NASH-STZ (n = 7), NASH-STZ-HI (n = 9)