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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia in the training, validation, and testing cohorts

From: CT radiomics facilitates more accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia: compared with CO-RADS

Characteristics Training cohort (n = 379) P value Validation cohort (n = 131) P value Testing cohort (n = 40) P value
  Non-COVID-19 group (n = 313) COVID-19 group (n = 66) Non-COVID-19 group (n = 102) COVID-19 group (n = 29) non-COVID-19 group (n = 20) COVID-19 group (n = 20)  
Age, median (IQR), years 7.0 (26.0) 47.5 (20.5) < 0.001 30.5 (49.2) 40.0 (20.5) 0.019 56.5 (30.5) 43.0 (13.0) 0.081
Gender (%)    0.006    0.587    0.749
 Female 177 (56.5) 25 (37.9)   62 (60.8) 16 (55.2)   9 (45.0) 8 (40.0)  
 Male 136 (43.5) 41 (62.1)   40 (39.2) 13 (44.8)   11 (55.0) 12 (60.0)  
Initial symptoms (%)    
 Snotty 6 (1.9) 3 (4.5) 0.407 0 (0.0) 1 (3.4) 0.221 0 (0.0) 1 (5.0) 0.500
 Sore throat 7 (2.2) 4 (6.1) 0.201 9 (8.8) 6 (20.7) 0.15 0 (0.0) 2 (10.0) 0.468
 Cough 292 (93.3) 52 (78.8) < 0.001 89 (87.3) 17 (58.6) 0.001 15 (75.0) 16 (80.0)  > 0.999
 Sputum 123 (39.3) 20 (30.3) 0.171 18 (17.6) 6 (20.7) 0.709 2 (10.0) 5 (25.0) 0.405
 Fever 196 (62.6) 48 (72.7) 0.119 65 (63.7) 24 (82.8) 0.053 11 (55.0) 14 (70.0) 0.327
 Dyspnoea 3 (1.0) 4 (6.1) 0.022 2 (2.0) 1 (3.4) 0.531 0 (0.0) 1 (5.0) 0.500
Laboratory testa (%)    
 White blood cell count 127 (40.6) /17 (5.4) 9 (13.6) /15 (22.7) < 0.001 22 (21.6)/ 5 (4.9) 0 (0.0)/ 6 (20.7) 0.014 7 (35.0)/ 0 (0.0) 3 (15.0)/ 3 (15.0) 0.098
 Neutrophil count 70 (22.4)/ 16 (5.1) 10 (15.2)/ 3 (4.5) 0.402 28 (27.5)/ 2 (2.0) 8 (27.6)/ 1(3.4) 0.989 8 (40.0)/ 0 (0.0) 5 (25.0)/ 0 (0.0) 0.311
 Neutrophil ratio 114 (36.4)/ 34 (10.9) 9 (13.6) / 4 (6.1) < 0.001 43 (42.2)/ 12 (11.8) 5 (17.2)/ 2 (6.9) 0.017 9 (45.0)/ 0 (0.0) 5 (25.0)/ 0 (0.0) 0.185
 Lymphocyte count 68 (21.7)/74 (23.6) 2 (3.0)/ 36 (54.5) < 0.001 5 (4.9)/ 32 (31.4) 0 (0.0)/ 17 (58.6) 0.007 0 (0.0)/ 10 (50.0) 0 (0.0)/ 5 (25.0) 0.102
 Lymphocyte ratio 38 (12.1)/ 107 (34.2) 2 (3.0)/ 34 (51.5) 0.009 10 (9.8)/ 43 (42.2) 1 (3.4)/ 15 (51.7) 0.449 0 (0.0)/ 9 (45.0) 0 (0.0)/ 5 (25.0) 0.185
 C-reactive protein 165 (52.7)/ 0 (0.0) 43 (65.2)/ 0 (0.0) 0.065 72 (70.6)/ 0 (0.0) 22 (75.9)/ 0 (0.0) 0.578 18 (90.0)/ 0 (0.0) 11 (55.0)/ 0 (0.0) 0.013
  1. IQR inter-quartile range
  2. aData are shown in the order of elevated and decreased results for the laboratory tests