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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes of the study population (LYMPHONIE study, 2018–2020)

From: The dysregulated innate immune response in severe COVID-19 pneumonia that could drive poorer outcome

  Normal range Study group P
Non-COVID-19 N = 36 COVID-19 N = 27
Demographics
 Age (years), mean ± SD   68.0 ± 13.0 62.5 ± 10.9 0.07
 Male sex, n (%)   29 (81%) 17 (63%) 0.12
 Body-mass index (kg/m2), mean ± SD   29.1 ± 7.1 30.7 ± 8.1 0.43
Chronic comorbidities
 Cardiovascular disease, n (%)   12 (33%) 5 (19%) 0.25
 Pulmonary disease, n (%)   12 (33%) 5 (19%)28 0.25
 Chronic renal disease, n (%)   2 (6%) 1 (4%) 0.73
 Cerebrovascular disease, n (%)   5 (14%) 3 (11%) 0.74
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%)   10 (28%) 2 (7%) 0.28
 Tobacco use, n (%)   10 (28%) 2 (7%) 0.055
 Charlson score, mean ± SD   1.5 ± 2.0 0.9 ± 0.9 0.12
Severity at hospital admission
 Septic shock, n (%)   11 (31%) 0 0.0015
 ARDS, n (%)   23 (64%) 25 (93%) 0.015
 Pneumonia Severity Index, mean ± SD   117.8 ± 38.6 94.2 ± 27.1 0.006
 SAPS II, mean ± SD   23.8 ± 9.9 19.4 ± 9.4 0.08
 SOFA score, mean ± SD   7.2 ± 3.6 6.7 ± 2.0 0.52
Biological findings at admission
 ASAT (IU/l), mean ± SD 15–37 86.3 ± 92.4 86.2 ± 54.6 0.99
 Serum Creatinine (μmol/l), mean ± SD 59–104 132.9 ± 93.3 90.2 ± 40.7 0.02
 NT-ProBNP (pg/ml), mean ± SD <125 5687 ± 7694 2225 ± 6257 0.05
 PaO2:FiO2 (mm Hg), mean ± SD ≥400 123.7 ± 54.9 136.2 ± 49.8 0.35
 Arterial pH (mm Hg), mean ± SD 7.35–7.45 7.35 ± 0.11 7.40 ± 0.07 0.07
 Serum Bicarbonate (mmol/l), mean ± SD 20–29 24.0 ± 5.1 24.6 ± 3.1 0.59
 Lactate level (mmol/l), mean ± SD 0.5–2.0 2.6 ± 1.9 1.7 ± 0.7 0.01
 C-reactive protein (mg/l), mean ± SD <3.2 259.9 ± 156.8 172.8 ± 62.9 0.004
 Procalcitonin (μg/L), mean ± SD <0.10 32.4 ± 61.9 2.6 ± 6.6 0.007
Immune cells
 Leukocytes (x106/l), mean ± SD 3.8–9.5 12.2 ± 6.4 10.8 ± 5.7 0.38
 Neutrophils (x106/l), mean ± SD 1.7–5.8 11.3 ± 5.5 9.4 ± 5.6 0.18
 Lymphocytes (x106/l), mean ± SD 1.07–4.03 0.64 ± 0.40 0.78 ± 0.38 0.16
 Monocytes (x106/l), mean ± SD 0.2–0.7 0.61 ± 0.46 0.44 ± 0.25 0.05
Lymphocyte subsets
 CD3 + (/μl), mean ± SD 605–2460 360.8 ± 281.0 443.6 ± 256.1 0.16
 CD4 + (/μl), mean ± SD 493–1666 241.4 ± 187.5 288.1 ± 264.0 0.44
 CD8 + (/μl), mean ± SD 224–1112 111.6 ± 100.9 145.1 ± 137.1 0.38
 CD4/CD8 ratio, mean ± SD 0.5–6.4 2.7 ± 1.7 2.7 ± 2.1 0.97
 NK cells (/μl), mean ± SD 73–654 103.8 ± 83.7 103.1 ± 87.7 0.12
 NKT cells (/μl), mean ± SD NA 27.3 ± 33.3 44.6 ± 67.4 0.19
 B cells (/μl), mean ± SD 72–520 95.6 ± 81.8 123.7 ± 78;4 0.17
Treatments
 Antibiotic multitherapy, n (%)   29 (81%) 17 (63%) 0.12
 Corticosteroids, n (%)   16 (44%) 16 (59%) 0.24
 Hydroxychloroquine, n (%)   0 10 (37%)  
 Remdesivir, n (%)   0 3 (11%)  
 Invasive mechanical ventilation, n (%)   24 (67%)  23 (85%)  0.09
 ECMO, n (%)   0 1 (4%) 0.43
 Renal replacement therapy, n (%)   5 (14%) 0 0.065
 Vasopressors, n (%)   19 (53%) 19 (70%) 0.16
Outcomes at 30 days
 ICU admission, n (%)   32 (89%) 274 (100%) 0.12
 Median ICU length of stay (days) (IQR)   13 (4–20) 20 (12–29) 0.0274
 Median days of mechanical ventilation (IQR)   4 (0–15) 15 (7–22) 0.0049
 Median hospital length of stay (days) (IQR)   21 (13–30) 29 (20–30) 0.087
 Ventilatory acquired pneumonia     0.001
  0 event, n (%)   29 (81%) 11 (41%)  
  1 event, n (%)   2 (6%) 11 (41%)  
  2 events, n (%)   5 (14%) 5 (19%)  
 Median days of antibiotic treatment(IQR)   12 (8–21) 15 (8–23) 0.48
 30 day mortality, n (%)   2 (6%) 1 (4%) 1
  1. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ASAT aspartate aminotransferase, NT-proBNP N-Terminal Fragment of the prohormone Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide, PaO2:FiO2 arterial pressure of oxygen/oxygen inspiratory fraction, NK Natural killer, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICU intensive care unit