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Table 3 Univariate analysis of clinicopathological characteristics of patients admitted with symptoms of COVID-19 (n = 224)

From: Prognostic factors in patients admitted to an urban teaching hospital with COVID-19 infection

  Alive (n = 172) Dead (n = 52) p-value
Age (< / ≥ 70 years) 124/48 19/33  < 0.001
Sex (male/female) 91/81 33/19 0.181
BMI (< 20; ≥ 20–29; ≥ 30 kg/m2) 13/85/74 4/25/23 0.867
SIMD (1 (most)–6 (least) deprived) 81/31/17/23/1/19 24/4/7/11/0/6 0.685
Ethnicity (1–5) 159/0/7/2/3 50/0/0/0/2 0.774
Living circumstances (0–3) 151/11/7/3 39/2/8/3 0.008
Past Medical History
 Hypertension (y/n) 63/109 28/24 0.027
 Heart failure (y/n) 12/160 11/41 0.003
 T1DM (y/n) 2/170 0/52 0.436
 T2DM (y/n) 37/135 15/37 0.273
 Chronic renal failure (y/n) 18/154 10/42 0.095
 Cognitive impairment (y/n) 16/156 14/38 0.001
 Previous delirium (y/n) 6/166 10/40  < 0.001
 Frailty score (≤ / > 3) 107/65 14/38  < 0.001
 COPD (y/n) 29/143 12/40 0.311
 Smoker (never/ex/active) 82/70/20 24/27/1 0.428
 Alcohol excess (y/n) 22/150 9/43 0.410
 Liver disease (y/n) 15/157 4/48 0.816
 Hep C (never/previous/active) 167/2/2 51/1/0 0.650
 Active cancer (y/n) 6/166 3/49 0.464
 Asthma (y/n) 42/130 4/48 0.009
 Surgery < 1 yr (y/n) 17/154 4/44 0.277
 Cancer resection (y/n) 1/171 0/52 0.582
Diagnostic criteria
 PCR positive/Clinical Dx/Radiological Dx 74/7/91 37/1/14 0.001
 PCR negative/indeterminate/positive 43/42/83 4/9/39 0.001
 CXR negative/positive 63/107 30/21 0.006
Physiology at presentation
 NEWS (≤ / > 4) 75/96 12/39 0.009
 Delirium (y/n) 14/158 12/36 0.001
Laboratory results at presentation
 CRP (< / ≥ 150 mg/L) 134/37 34/18 0.058
 Albumin (≥ / < 35 g/L) 82/87 15/35 0.021
 poGPS (0/1/2) 130/35/3 32/15/3 0.032
 WCC (< 4.5 / ≥ 4.5—≤ 11.0/ > 11.0 × 109/L) 23/118/30 7/34/11 0.750
 Neutrophils (< / ≥ 7.5 × 109/L) 132/39 34/18 0.088
 Lymphocytes (≥ / < 1.5 × 109/L) 52/118 7/45 0.015
 NLR (< 3/ 3–5 / ≥ 5) 39/46/85 5/9/38 0.004
 Hb (≥ / < 12.0 g/dL) 143/28 38/13 0.142
 MCV (> / ≤ 99 fl) 149/21 40/11 0.102
 Hct (male ≥ / < 0.40) (female ≥ / < 0.37) L/L 126/45 29/23 0.014
 Platelets (≥ / < 150 × 109) 140/30 40/12 0.383
 Sodium (< 133/ ≥ 133– ≤ 146/ > 146 mmol/L) 17/153/2 9/40/3 0.013
 Potassium (< 3.5/ ≥ 3.5– ≤ 5.5/ > 5.5 mmol/L) 13/142/2 5/36/0 0.822
 Mg (≥ / < 0.75 mmol/L) 33/60 8/28 0.148
Urea (≤ / > 7.5 mmol/L) 125/47 24/28  < 0.001
Creatinine (≤ / > 130 umol/L) 159/13 43/9 0.039
AST (≤ / > 40 IU) 96/55 24/16 0.678
ALT (≤ / > 56 IU) 136/33 41/9 0.810
ALP (≤ / > 130 IU) 155/14 49/2 0.294
Bilirubin (≤ / > 17 mmol/L) 151/18 45/6 0.823
Glucose (≤ / > 7 mmol/L) 96/51 22/20 0.128
Lactate (< / ≥ 2 mmol/L) 43/21 17/12 0.426
HCO3 (≥ / < 22 mmol/L) 29/7 14/4 0.813
PT (≤ / > 13 s) 94/ 50 24/17 0.429
APPT (≤ / > 38 s) 133/8 36/3 0.642
  1. Living circumstances: 0 = independent, 1 = sheltered accommodation, 2 = care home, 3 = nursing home
  2. Ethnicity: White = 1, Mixed = 2, Asian = 3, Black = 4, Other ethnic groups or missing = 5
  3. poGPS peri-operative Glasgow prognostic score, NLR neutrophil lymphocyte ratio