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Table 1 Clinical benefits from key clinical trials using stromal stem cells in heart diseases

From: Mesenchymal stem cell mediates cardiac repair through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine axes

Clinical trial Year Cell type Patient population Delivery route LVEF LVEDV Infarct size
POSEIDON [15] 2012 Allogeneic and autologous BM-MSC ICM
LVEF ≤ 50%
APOLLO [66] 2012 Autologous ASC STEMI Intracoronary N/A
C-CURE [67] 2013 Autologous BM-MSC LVEF 15–40% Endoventricular N/A
PROMETHEUS [68] 2014 Autologous BM-MSC ICM Intramyocardial
PRECISE [16] 2014 Autologous ASC ICM, CABG Transendocardial
Gao et al. [69] 2015 Allogeneic WJ-MSC STEMI Intracoronary N/A
TRIDENT [70] 2017 Allogeneic BM-MSC ICM, LVEF ≤ 50% Transendocardial
CHART-1 [71] 2017 Autologous BM-MSC IHF, LVEF ≤ 35% Intramyocardial N/A
ATHENA [72] 2017 Autologous ASC ICM
20% ≤ LVEF ≤ 45%
Intramyocardial N/A
MyStromalCell [73] 2017 Autologous ASC ICM
LVEF > 40%
Intramyocardial N/A N/A N/A
  1. ↔↑↓ Respectively mean no change, increase and decrease. N/A means not measured
  2. BM Bone marrow, WJ Wharton Jelly, ICM ischemic cardiomyopathy, CABG Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, LVEF Left Ventricular. Ejection Fraction, LVEDV Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Volume, ICM Ischemic Cardiomyopathy, STEMI ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction