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Table 2 All published research on endometriosis and anti-inflammatory drugs done in animal models was found by searching PubMed database and the corresponding clinical trials until January 2019

From: Endometriosis: current challenges in modeling a multifactorial disease of unknown etiology

Author, year Main drug Drug effect Animal model (n) Conclusion Clinical Trial using the same drug (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier) ClinicalTrial status New endometriosis research advance
Saltan et al. (2016) [146] Viburnum opulus Antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypogly-cemic, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory Rat (30) Endometrioctic volume reduced; Peritoneal TNF-α, VEGF and IL-6 concentration reduced The Efficacy of Viburnum Opulus 3X in the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea (NCT02467543) Completed Endometriosis was an exclusion criteria
Bostanci et al. (2016) [127]) Aloe Vera Antioxidant Rat (24) Endometrioctic volume reduced; Peritoneal fluid antioxidant levels raised 43 trials using Aloe Vera, none using it to treat endometriosis
Zhou et al. (2012) [152] Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant Rat (40) Reduced levels of CA-125, TNF-α and IL-18. Increased levels of Il-13 2 trials with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, one for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the other for Pulmonary conditions. None for endometriosis
Neto et al. (2011) [142] Uncariatomentosa Anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, pro-apoptotic, anti- oxidant and contraceptive Rat (40) Contraception Phase II Clinical Trial of UncariaTomentosa (Cat´s Claw) in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors (NCT02045719) Unknown Not associated with endometriosis
Sun et al. (2011) [149] FubaoDangguiJiao Abortion prevention and regulate menstruation Rat (40) Endometrioctic volume reduced No clinicaltrials
Neto et al. (2011) [143] Uncariatomentosa Anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, pro-apoptotic, anti- oxidant and contraceptive Rat (25) Endometrioctic volume reduced Phase II Clinical Trial of UncariaTomentosa (Cat´s Claw) in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors (NCT02045719) Unknown Not associated with endometriosis
Qu et al. (2005) [145] Yiweining Anti-inflammatory Rat (50) Reduced serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 Comparative study on the efficacy of Yiweining and Gestrinone for post-operational treatment of stage III endometriosis Completed Yiweining suppressed
post-operational relapse and dissemination of
endometriosis III
Xiao et al. (2002) [151] Tripterygium Wilfordiipolyglycoside Anti-inflammatory, immune modulation, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic Rabbit (22) Endometriotic volume and antiendometrial antibody reduced; serum FSH and LH levels decreased 6 clinical trials found on Pubmed. Noneendometriosisrelated Its clinical use is limited duo its severe toxicity
Chen et al. (2010) [128]) 15-epi-lipoxin A4 Anti-inflammatory Mouse (45) Supression of lesion growth 14 trials, none using for endometriosis research
Machado et al. (2010) [139] cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor Inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandins which are one of the responsibles for inflammation Rat (20) Supression of lesion growth 682 trials, none using cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor to treat endometriosis
Nenicu et al. (2017) [141] 1-Telmisartan and 2-parecoxib (cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) 1-Anti-hypertensive; 2-Inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandins which are one of the responsibles for inflammation Mouse (42) Supression of lesion formation and growth 282 and 47 trials, none using Telmisartan nor parecoxib to treat endometriosis respectively
Jana et al. (2012) [133]) Curcumin Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory Mouse (48) Supression of lesion growth Curcumin Supplementation for Gynecological Diseases (NCT03016039) Not yet recruting Curcumin was used to trattubo ovarian abcess, endometritis, wound infection.
Matsuzaki et al. (2004) [140] cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor Inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandins which are one of the responsibles for inflammation Rat (74) Supression of lesion growth 682 trials, none using cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor to treat endometriosis
Laux-Biehlmann et al. (2016) [138] 1-celecoxib (cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor); 2-antinociceptive (Nav1.8 blocker A-803467) 1-Inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandins which are one of the responsibles for inflammation; 2-induce analgesia in inflammatory pain models Mouse (number of animals was not described) 1-Decrease in percentage time in the standing position, associated with pain. 1. 496 trials using celecoxib, none for endometriosis; 2- 55 trials for antinociceptive none with endometriosis; 2-1 study using sodium channel blocker but not endometriosis related
Elmali et al. (2002) [130]) Caffeic acid phenethyl ester Anti-inflammatory Rat (30) Decrease in osxidative stress parameters 1 clinical trial (NCT02744703) but not endometriosis related
Barretto et al. (2016) [125]) Acetylsalicylic acid Cytolytic and antineoplastic Rabbit (40) Partial supression of lesion growth 1754 trails, none for endometriosis treatment
Abbas et al. (2013) [123]) β-Caryophyllene Anti-inflammatory Rat (27) Supression of lesion growth without interfering with fertility 1 trial (NCT03152578) but not endometriosis related
Kizilay et al. (2017) [136] 1- Curcumin; 2-Deferoxamine 1-Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory; 2-Iron-chelating Rat (30) Supression of lesion growth 58 trials using Deferoxamine, but none for endometriosis treatment
Kiykac Altinbas et al. (2015) [135]) Montelukast Anti-inflammatory Rat (33) Supression of lesion growth 287 trails using Montelukast (also searched for Singulair and MK 0476), but none for endometriosis research
Bayoglu Tekin et al. (2015) [126]) Resveratrol Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory Rat (40) Reduction on Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory parameters Resveratrol for Pain Due to Endometriosis (ResvEndo) (NCT02475564) Completed (phase 4) No difference between groups regarding pain and serum CA125 and Prolactin Levels reduction after 42 days of medication. 22 patients per group.
Hull et al. (2005) [132] Nimesulide (COX-2 inhibitor) Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory Mouse (30) No supression of lesion growth 17 trails, none for endometriosis treatment
Efstathiou et al. (2005) [129]) 1-Aspirin; 2-Celecoxib; 3-Ibuprofen; 4-Indomethacin; 5-Naproxen; 6-Sulindac; 7-Rofecoxib Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory Mouse (105) Celecoxib and indomethacin were most efficacious to supress lesion growth
and aspirin had no effect
Ibuprofen is only used in 2 clinical trials but as rescue medication, not for testing (NCT02437175; NCT01942122)
Takai et al. (2013) [150] Parthenolide Anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory Mouse (30) Inhibited endometriosis like lesion formation 4 trials, none for endometriosis propose
Kurt et al. (2015) [137] Colchicine Anti-inflammatory Rat (16) Supression of lesion formation and growth 127 trials, none to study endometriosis
Güney et al. (2008) [131] Melatonin Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory Rat (25) Supression of lesion formation and growth 441 trials using Melatonin, none using it to treat endometriosis
Kilico et al. (2014) [134]) Dexketoprofen trometamol (Cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitor) Inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandins which are one of the responsibles for inflammation Rat (60) Supression of lesion formation and growth 18 trials using Dexketoprofen trometamol
(also searched as Enantyum), none to treat endometriosis
Rudzitis-Auth et al. (2013) [65] Resveratrol Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory Mouse (20) Suppression of new microvessels in lesions Resveratrol for Pain Due to Endometriosis (ResvEndo) (NCT02475564) Completed (phase 4) No difference between groups regarding pain and serum CA125 and Prolactin Levels reduction after 42 days of medication. 22 patients per group.
Agostinis et al. 2015 [124]) 1- N-acetyl cysteine; 2-alpha-lipoic acid; 3- bromelain Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory Mouse (16) Supression of lesion formation and growth No endometriosis related clinical trial with neither drug
Soylu Karapinar et al. (2017) [148] Dexpanthenol Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory Rat (20) Supression of lesion growth 26 trials using Dexpanthenol (or Panthenol and Bepanthen), but nnone for endometriosis treatment
Siqueira et al. (2011) [147] Acetylsalicylic acid Cytolytic and antineoplastic Rabbit (40) Supression of lesion growth 1754 trails, none for endometriosis treatment
Olivares et al. (2011) [144] Celecoxib (Cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitor) and rosiglitazone Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory Mouse (48) Supression of lesion formation and growth 1-Use of Rosiglitazone in the Treatment of Endometriosis (NCT00115661); 2-ffect of Rosiglitazone on Peritoneal Cytokines in Women With Endometriosis (NCT00121953) 1-Terminated; 2-Withdrawn