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Table 6 Preliminary targeted panel—SARS biology relevance focus

From: A modular framework for the development of targeted Covid-19 blood transcript profiling panels

Module set Module ID NCBI
Entrez ID
Symbol Name Relevance Notes
A1/S1 M15.38 916 CD3E CD3e molecule Immunological  
A1/S2 M12.1 60489 APOBEC3G apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3G CoV Biology APOBEC3G associates with SARS viral structural proteins [54], with a possible role in restriction of RNA virus replication [55]
A1/S3 M14.64 51284 TLR7 Toll like receptor 7 CoV Biology TLR7 Signaling Pathway is inhibited by SARS Coronavirus Papain-Like Protease [35]
A2/S1 M13.21 3458 IFNG Interferon gamma CoV Biology Interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 Downregulate Expression of the SARS Coronavirus Receptor ACE2 [56]
A2/S2 M13.10 25 ABL1 ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase CoV Biology Abl Kinase inhibitors block SARS-Cov fusion [57]
A4/S1 M16.77 3811 KIR3DL1 killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, three Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 1 Immunological The inhibitory KIR3DL1 is a strong ligand for HLA Bw4, C1 and C2 groups. High expression of this inhibitory KIR was associated with slower disease progress to AIDS and better HIV viral load control [58]
A5/S1 M16.65 4092 SMAD7 SMAD family member 7 CoV Biology MERS Coronavirus Induces Apoptosis in Kidney and Lung by Upregulating Smad7 and FGF2 [59]
A5/S2 M16.111 27242 TNFRSF21 TNF receptor superfamily member 21 Immunological  
A7/S1 M15.61 1958 EGR1 Early growth response 1 CoV Biology SARS Coronavirus Papain-Like Protease Induces Egr-1-dependent Up-Regulation of TGF-β1 [60]
A8/S1 M16.30 857 CAV1 Caveolin 1 CoV Biology Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Orf3a Protein Interacts with Caveolin [61]
A8/S2 M16.106 57823 SLAMF7 SLAM family member 7 Immunological  
A10/S1 M15.102 246 ALOX15 arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase Immunological  
A26/S1 M12.2 942 CD86 CD86 molecule Immunological  
A27/S1 M12.15 608 TNFRSF17 TNF receptor superfamily member 17 Immunological  
A28/S1 M8.3 9636 ISG15 ISG15 ubiquitin like modifier CoV Biology SARS-CoV PLpro exhibits ISG15 precursor processing activities [62]
A28/S2 M15.64 1230 CCR1 C–C motif chemokine receptor 1 CoV Biology MLN-3897, a CCR1 antagonist inhibits replication of SARS-CoV-2 replication [63]
A28/S3 M10.1 6772 STAT1 Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 CoV Biology SARS ORF6 Antagonizes STAT1 Function [36]
A31/S1 M16.64 1950 EGF Epidermal growth factor Immunological  
A31/S2 M15.58 5743 PTGS2 Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 CoV Biology Encodes COX2, which expression is stimulated by SARS Spike protein [64]
A33/S1 M14.24 114548 NLRP3 NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 CoV Biology Multiple SARS-Coronavirus protein have been reported to activates NLRP3 inflammasomes [65, 66]
A33/S2 M14.19 23765 IL17RA Interleukin 17 receptor A Immunological  
A34/S1 M8.2 3674 ITGA2B Integrin subunit alpha 2b Immunological  
A35/S1 M13.3 1241 LTB4R Leukotriene B4 receptor Immunological  
A35/S2 M15.78 290 ANPEP alanyl aminopeptidase, membrane CoV Biology A potential receptor for human CoVs [67]
A36/S1 M16.88 6352 CCL5 C–C motif chemokine ligand 5 CoV Biology CCL5/RANTES is associated with the replication of SARS in THP-1 Cells [68]
A37/S1 M13.26 5045 FURIN Furin, paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme CoV Biology Furin cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein enhances cell–cell fusion [69]
A38/S1 M10.4 4057 LTF Lactotransferrin CoV Biology Lactotransferrin blocks the binding of the SARS-CoV spike protein to host cells, thus exerting an inhibitory function at the viral attachment stage [33]
A38/S2 M12.9 1508 CTSB Cathepsin B CoV Biology Activation of SARS- and MERS-coronavirus is mediated cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB) [70]