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Table 3 Summative results of the 51 studies by cancer type

From: The clinical application of electrical impedance technology in the detection of malignant neoplasms: a systematic review

Site of malignancy Histopathological type No. of studies Total no. of patients Specimen state Summative evidence
Cervical Cervical SCC 4 638 In-vivo Stronga
Prostate 12 297 Both Strong
Skin Skin melanoma & NMSC 7 3009 In-vivo Moderate
Breast Various carcinomas 12 2460 Both Moderate
Oral mucosa SCC 2 198 In-vivo Moderate
Bladder 3 123 Both Moderate
Thyroid Various carcinomas 1 27 In-vivo Moderate
Colorectal Adenocarcinoma 1 22 Ex-vivo Moderate
Tongue SCC 2 29 In-vivo Weak
Lung Various 2 138 Both Weak
Hepatic Metastases 2 16 Ex-vivo Weak
Oesophagus SCC & adenocarcinoma 1 23 In-vivo Weak
Gastric Adenocarcinoma 1 45 In-vivo Weak
Renal Renal cell carcinoma 1 10 Ex-vivo Weak
  1. SCC: squamous cell carcinoma; NMSC: non-melanomatous skin cancer; BCC: basal cell carcinoma; ‘–’, not stated
  2. Summative evidence strength classified as “Strong”: 2 or more large studies with good discriminative ability
  3. “Moderate”: good discriminative indices described but in small numbers for any specific histological type
  4. “Weak”: insufficient statistical data to demonstrate significant discriminative ability currently