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Table 1 Developmental vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2 protein S

From: SARS-CoV-2 SPIKE PROTEIN: an optimal immunological target for vaccines

CompaniesVaccination typologyCurrent development stage
AltimmuneA replication-defective adenovirus vector incorporating the SARS-CoV-2 S protein administered by an intranasal single-doseThe vaccine design and synthesis steps are completed. Moving toward preclinical tests and manufacture, hoping to start phase 1 trial at mid-August
CanSino biologicalsAdenovirus type 5 vector that expresses S proteinPhase I (NCT04313127) completed Phase II started: It is China’s first recombinant vaccine candidate for novel coronavirus entering Phase II of a human clinical trial, with 500 volunteer participants
(Sichuan) Clover Biopharmaceuticals (Chengdu, China) Partnered with GlaxoSmithKlineRecombinant SARS-CoV-2 S-protein trimer subunit produced by its patented Trimer-Tag© technologyCarrying out preclinical tests with GlaxoSmithKline’s pandemic vaccine adjuvant technology and in collaboration with Dynavax, proprietary holder of toll-like receptor 9 agonist adjuvant, CpG 1018
Inovio PharmaceuticalsElectroporation of DNA INO-4800 encoding SARS-CoV-2 S proteinStarted trial in United States (Phase 1 NCT04336410). There are already 3000 doses available
LineaRx Takis Biotech (Rome) to clinical test candidates in ItalyElectroporation of linear DNA encoding S protein or its specific portionsFive candidates have been designed of linear DNA vaccine based on S protein and selected epitopes, ready for testing by the beginning of May or June
ModernaThe mRNA encoding SARS-CoV-2 S protein is encapsulated in ionizable lipid, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and polyethylene glycol lipidPhase 1 (NCT04283461) testing is underway
NovavaxNanoparticle displaying SARS-CoV 2 S protein with saponin-based (Matrix-M) adjuvantCurrently assessing the candidates in animal models, expecting to start Phase 1 trial in June 2020
University of Queensland (Brisbane, Australia)Recombinant subunit of SARS-CoV-2 S protein locked in prefusion conformation by polypeptide moiety (molecular clamp)In preclinical testing, partnering with Dynavax Technologies Corp. in collaboration with GlaxoSmithKline plc and Seqirus GmbH