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Table 1 Demographics and characteristics of patients infected with COVID-19

From: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts critical illness patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in the early stage

 Derivation cohort (n = 61)Validation cohort (n = 54)p value
Characteristics   
Age, years40 (1–86)45 (1–92)0.983
Gender  0.268
 Male31 (50.8)33 (61.1) 
 Female30 (49.2)21 (38.9) 
Current smoking4 (6.6)6 (11.1)0.387
Drinking13 (21.3)12 (22.2)0.906
Exposure   
 Wuhan residents come to Beijing44 (72.1)10 (18.5)< 0.0001
Comorbidity   
 Diabetes5 (8.2)5 (9.3)0.840
 Hypertension12 (19.7)13 (24.1)0.568
 Cardiovascular disease1 (1.6)3 (5.6)0.253
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease5 (8.2)1 (1.9)0.127
Disease type on admission this hospital  0.071
 Mild5 (8.2)9 (16.7) 
 Moderate39 (63.9)25 (46.3) 
 Severe14 (23.0)15 (27.8) 
 Critical3 (4.9)5 (9.3) 
Signs and symptoms   
 Highest temperature,  °C   
  37.3–38.021 (34.4)13 (24.1)0.225
  38.1–39.034 (55.7)25 (46.3)0.312
  > 39.05 (8.2)4 (7.4)0.875
 Dyspnea3 (4.9)4 (7.4)0.577
 Mild shortness of breath7 (11.5)12 (22.2)0.121
 Cough39 (63.9)38 (70.4)0.464
 Sputum production27 (44.3)22 (40.7)0.703
 Fatigue35 (57.4)26 (48.1)0.322
 Headache21 (34.4)6 (11.1)0.003
 Chill12 (19.7)9 (16.7)0.677
 Anorexia8 (13.1)6 (11.1)0.743
 Nausea or vomiting5 (8.2)5 (9.3)0.840
 Diarrhea6 (9.8)2 (3.7)0.197
 Sore throat10 (16.4)8 (14.80.816
 Chest pain1 (1.6)0 (0)0.345
 Systolic pressure < 90 or diastolic pressure ≤ 60, mmHg5 (8.2)6 (11.1)0.596
 Respiratory rate > 30 breaths per min2 (3.3)4 (7.4)0.320
Blood laboratory findings   
 White blood cell count, ×109/L4.3 (3.5–5.1)5.4 (4.1–7.0)< 0.0001
 Neutrophil count, ×109/L2.5 (2.1–3.5)3.0 (2.1–4.6)0.036
 Lymphocyte count, ×109/L1.0 (0.8–1.4)1.3 (1.0–1.9)0.011
 Monocyte count, ×109/L0.3 (0.2–0.4)0.3 (0.2–0.4)0.079
 NLR2.6 (1.6–3.5)2.3 (1.5–3.9)0.676
 C-reactive protein, mg/L12.0 (3.7–27.8)21.6 (1.9–87.4)0.184
 Hemoglobin, g/L138.0 (127.0–150.5)139.0 (127.8–147.0)0.773
 Platelet count, ×109/L164.0 (135.0–219.5)205.5 (149.8–263.6)0.013
 Prothrombin time, s12.0 (11.1–13.1)12.2 (11.8–13.1)0.191
 Potassium, mmol/L3.8 (3.5–4.1)3.8 (3.6–4.2)0.408
 Sodium, mmol/L139.0 (137.0–140.0)138.5 (136.4–139.7)0.112
 Serum Chlorine, mmol/L102.0 (100.0–104.0)102.3 (100.2–105.3)0.796
 Serum urea nitrogen, mmol/L4.3 (3.5–5.6)4.3 (3.4–5.5)0.989
 Creatinine, μmol/L60.0 (47.0–69.5)69.3 (51.6–80.1)0.069
 Serum glucose, mmol/L6.1 (5.5–6.9)5.9 (5.2–7.7)0.407
 Creatine kinase, U/L93.0 (57.0–137.0)89.4 (63.7–141)0.643
 Alanine aminotransferase, U/L19.0 (14.0–33.5)23.7 (13.9–35.4)0.295
 Albumin, g/L44.0 (40.5–47.0)41.1 (36.2–44.2)0.005
 Multiple lung lobe or bilateral involvement48 (78.7)37 (68.5)0.743
 With bacterial infection8 (13.1)6 (11.1)0.231
Timeline after onset of illness, median (range)   
 Days from illness onset to admission time5 (0–23)7 (0–21)0.042
 Days from illness onset to dyspnea3 (2–11)7 (0–9)0.906
 Days from illness onset to ICU admission9 (2–14)10 (4–14)0.643
Treatment   
 Antiviral therapy34 (55.7)36 (66.7)0.231
 Antibiotic therapy26 (42.6)21 (38.9)0.684
 Use of corticosteroid2 (3.3)3 (5.6)0.550
 Oxygen support20 (32.8)24 (44.4)0.199
  Nasal cannula15 (24.6)19 (35.2) 
  Non-invasive ventilation3 (4.9)2 (3.7) 
  Invasive mechanical ventilation2 (3.3)3 (5.6) 
 Nebulization inhalation52 (85.2)49 (90.7)0.368
Outcomes   
 Dead0 (0)1 (1.9)0.286
 Transfer to ICU8 (13.1)6 (11.1)0.743
 Discharge3 (4.9)19 (35.2)< 0.0001
 Hospitalization50 (82.0)28 (51.9)0.001
  1. Data are median (range), n (%), or median (interquartile range)
  2. COVID-19 2019 novel coronavirus, NLR neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, NA not applicable, ICU intensive care unit
  3. p values comparing mild group and severe group are from χ2 test, or Mann–Whitney U test