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Table 2 Study results for blood metabolite analyses

From: A systematic review of metabolomic dysregulation in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (CFS/ME/SEID)

Author and yearNumber of metabolitesBlood metabolite
AssessedSignificantly different in CFS/ME/SEID vs HCDecreased in CFS/ME/SEID vs HC (p-value)Increased in CFS/ME/SEID vs HC (p-value)
Germain et al. (2020) [21]78641Cysteinylglycine (0.008)
Hypotaurine (0.039)
Indolelactate (0.006)
Tryptophan betaine (0.035)
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) (0.035)
Epiandrosterone sulfate (0.035)
Androstenediol (3alpha, 17alpha) monosulfate (2) (0.039)
5alpha-androstan-3beta,17alpha-diol disulfate (0.04)
Androsterone sulfate (0.041)
Androstenediol (3beta,17beta) disulfate (2) (0.044)
Etiocholanolone glucuronide (0.049)
Cortisone (0.004)
Cortisol (0.02)
Dihomo-linolenoyl-choline (0.019)
Linoleoylcholine (0.036)
Stearoylcholine (0.043)
Docosahexaenoylcarnitine (C22:6) (0.025)
Adrenoylcarnitine (C22:4) (0.029)
Octanoylcarnitine (C8) (0.035)
Decanoylcarnitine (C10) (0.049)
Branched chain 14:0 dicarboxylic acid (0.049)
3-hydroxymyristate (0.013)
3-hydroxydecanoate (0.015)
3-hydroxylaurate (0.029)
Cis-4-decenoate (10:1n6) (0.047)
Valerate (5:0) (0.045)
Phenylalanylalanine (0.007)
Phenylalanylglycine (0.014)
Valylleucine (0.046)
Dimethyl sulfone (0.032)
Piperine (0.027)
Sulfate of piperine metabolite C16H19NO3 (3) (0.027)
Stachydrine (0.044)
N-carbamoylalanine (0.049)
4-hydroxyglutamate (0.004)
N-acetyl-1-methylhistidine (0.038)
N,N,N-trimethyl-alanylproline betaine (TMAP) (0.039)
Arachidoylcarnitine (0.025)
Adipoylcarnitine (C6-DC) (0.042)
Glycohyocholate (0.048)
Gamma-glutamyltyrosine (0.045)
Germain et al. (2018) [22]8329Gamma-CEHC (0.005)
Alpha-CEHC glucuronide (0.018)
Gamma-CEHC glucuronide (0.019)
Inosine 5′-monphosphate (0.003)
2′-O-methylcytidine (0.009)
Adenosine 3′-5′-cyclicmonophosphate (0.012)
Haem (0.002)
Alpha-ketoglutarate (0.03)
Gamma-glutamyl-threonine (0.003)
Nagy-Szakal et al. (2018) [29]5622Carnitine-choline (0.017)
Phosphatidylcholine (0.017)
None
Germain et al. (2017) [23]36165Acetylcarnosine (0.0014)
ATP (0.0024)
ADP (0.0034)
Glycochenodeoxycholate (0.0044)
C3H4O2.3 (0.0050)
2-Methylglutaconic acid (0.0097)
C20H34O4.4 (0.0032)
Taurine (0.0073)
13-carboxy-alpha-tocopherol (0.0027)
4-Imidazolone-5-propanoate (0.0023)
Sulfoglycolithocholate (0.0058)
C4H6O3.3 (0.0074)
Acetamidopropanal (0.0164)
l-proline (0.0164)
d-glucose (0.0091)
l-erythrulose (0.0093)
2,3-epoxy-alpha-tocopherylquinone,5,6-epoxy-alpha-tocopherylquinone (0.0082)
l-glutonate (0.0091)
d-glutonate (0.0091)
C20H32O4.21 (0.0034)
Glycolothocholate (0.0075)
CDP-Choline (0.0141)
Glycocholate (0.0110)
25-hydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone (0.0075)
Lithocholate (0.0182)
Glyoxylate (0.0073)
Choline phosphate(1-)(0.0085)
Succinylcarnitine (0.0271)
5-guanidino-2-oxopentanoic acid (0.0050)
Phosphoanto-oxy-phisphonate-UDP-d-galactose (0.0110)
S-(2-Methylpropanoyl)-dihydrolipoamide (0.0064)
Ethanolamine phosphate (0.0201)
S-[2-Carboxy-1-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethyl]-l-cysteine (0.0153)
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,25-tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestane-24-one/3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoate (0.0136)
l-kynurenine/Fromyl-5-hydroxykynurenamine (0.0201)
Fructoseglycine (0.0332)
Oxaloacetate (0.0396)
C27H46O4.3 (0.0259)
5-hydroxyindoleacatate (0.0328)
2-Keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-nonic acid (0.0430)
l-isoleucine, l-Leucine (0.0482)
13-carboxy-gamma-tocopherol (0.0475)
d-Glucuronate 1-phosphate (0.0195)
Nicotinamide (0.0396)
3-oxo-8(R)-hydroxy-hexadeca-6E10Z-dienoate_3-oxo-8(S)-hydroxy-hexadeca-6E10Z-dienoate (0.0264)
Biotin (0.0363)
3-Hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (0.0460)
UTP (0.0461)
5-amino-1-(5-phospho-d-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (0.0357)
Cis-11-Eicosenate (0.0069)
C20H30O2.4 (0.0041)
Cervonic acid C22:6(n-3), docosahexaenoate (0.0042)
3-(methylthio)propionate (0.0299)
(Trans-vaccenate-elaidate-oleate (0.0375)
5,6-Dihydrothymine (0.0259)
Urocanate (0.0392)
N2-Formyl-N1-(5-phospho-d-ribosyl)glycinamide (0.0361)
4-Hydroperoxy-2-nonenal (0.0264)
Glycero-3-phosphate (0.0333)
Arachidonate, Eicosatetranoic acid (0.0240)
Pristanic acid, pristanate (0.0290)
Deoxyuridine (0.0296)
Clupanodonic acid docosa-4,7,10,13,16-pentaenoic acid (0.0341)
4-Hydroxyphenylacatate/2-Hydroxyphenylacetate/3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (0.0430)
Spermidine (0.0464)
Yamano et al. (2016) [24]1446Citrate (< 0.05)
Isocitrate (< 0.05)
Malate (< 0.05)
Urea (< 0.01)
Citrulline (< 0.01)
Ornithine (< 0.05)
Fluge et al. (2016) [25]2014Lys (0.001)
Leu (< 0.001)
Phe (< 0.001)
Tyr (< 0.001)
Ile (< 0.001)
Trp (0.009)
Ala (0.027)
Val (< 0.001)
Met (0.017)
Asx (< 0.001)
His (< 0.001)
Pro (< 0.001)
Glx (0.029)
SDMA (0.001)
None
Naviaux et al. (2016) [30]61261-FemalesCeramide(d18:1/25:0) (< 0.001)
THC 18:1/24:0 (< 0.001)
PC(16:0/16:0) (< 0.001)
Lathosterol (< 0.001)
PI(16:0/16:0) (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/22:2) (< 0.001)
Adenosine (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/24:2) (< 0.001)
THC 18:1/16:0 (< 0.001)
2-Octenoylcarnitine (< 0.001)
GC(18:1/16:0) (< 0.001)
Phenyllactic acid (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/26:0) (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/24:0) (< 0.001)
DHC(18:1/16:0) (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/26:2) (< 0.001)
FAD (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/16:0) (< 0.001)
SM(d18:1/22:2) (< 0.001)
Adenosine monophosphate (< 0.001)
PI(38:3) (< 0.001)
Chenodeoxycholic acid (0.007)
Ceramide(d18:1/20:0) (0.007)
Ceramide(d18:1/22:1 OH) (0.009)
Ceramide(d18:1/18:2 OH) (0.009)
Ceramide(d18:1/22:0) (0.010)
Ceramide(d18:1/18:0) (0.010)
Ceramide(d18:1/16:1 OH) (0.010)
Ceramide(d18:1/24:2 OH) (0.012)
SM(d18:1/16:0) (0.012)
Ceramide(d18:1/24:1) (0.013)
PI(34:1) (0.014)
PI(36:0) (0.016)
SM(d18:1/20:1) (0.016)
2-Arachidonylglycerol (0.018)
THC 18:1/18:0 (0.018)
Ceramide(d18:1/22:1) (0.019)
PI(34:0) (0.020)
Ceramide(d18:1/26:1 OH) (0.020)
PI(38:4) (0.021)
Hydroxyisocaproic acid (0.022)
PC(30:0) (0.025)
Cobalamin (0.026)
Ceramide(d18:1/20:1 OH) (0.026)
dAMP (0.027)
PG(32:2) (0.032)
PC(16:0/18:2) (0.033)
PI(36:1) (0.034)
Hydroxyproline (< 0.001)
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (< 0.001)
PC(18:1/22:5) (< 0.001)
PC(22:6/P-18:0) (< 0.001) PC(36:0) (0.006)
PC(18:1/22:6) (0.008)
Adipoylcarnitine (0.017)
PC(16:0/22:6) (0.025)
Arginine (0.030)
PC(38:5) (0.031)
Gluconic acid (0.032)
Vitamin K2 (0.033)
Glucosamine 6-phosphate (0.034)
61261-MalesPC(16:0/16:0) (< 0.001)
GC(18:1/16:0) (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/16:0) (< 0.001)
THC 18:1/24:0 (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/24:2) (< 0.001)
PI(38:4) (< 0.001)
DHC(18:1/16:0) (< 0.001)
PA(16:0/16:0) (< 0.001)
SM(d18:1/22:1 OH) (< 0.001)
SM(d18:1/24:2 OH) (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/16:1 OH) (< 0.001)
SM(d18:1/22:0) (< 0.001)
Ethanolamine (< 0.001)
FAD (< 0.001)
4-Hydroxyphenyllactic (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/16:1) (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/18:0) (< 0.001)
SM(d18:1/16:0) (< 0.001)
SM(d18:1/18:2 OH) (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/24:1) (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/26:2) (< 0.001)
Ceramide(d18:1/25:0) (0.005)
Ceramide(d18:1/22:2) (0.005)
Ceramide(d18:1/22:1) (0.005)
Behenic acid (0.008)
Hydroxyisocaproic acid (0.010)
Uric acid (0.010)
Pyroglutamic acid (0.012)
SM(d18:1/24:0) (0.012)
Lathosterol (0.011)
PC(16:0/20:4) (0.011)
SM(d18:1/22:1) (0.013)
Ceramide(d18:1/22:0) (0.014)
SM(d18:1/16:0 OH) (0.015)
Ceramide(d18:1/24:0) (0.016)
SM(d18:1/20:2 OH) (0.016)
PC(18:1/18:1) (0.017)
Ceramide(d18:1/16:2 OH) (0.018)
PI(38:3) (0.021)
2-Methylcitric acid (0.021)
SM(d18:1/22:0 OH) (0.022)
24,25-Epoxycholesterol (0.022)
Cholesterol (0.023)
SM(d18:1/18:0) (0.024)
Ceramide(d18:1/24:0 OH) (0.026)
SM(d18:1/22:2) (0.026)
2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate (0.027)
Ceramide(d18:1/16:0 OH) (0.028)
Deoxyguanosine (0.028)
Tiglylcarnitine (0.033)
SM(d18:1/16:1 OH) (0.032)
Ceramide(d18:1/18:1 OH) (0.031)
SM(d18:1/25:0) (0.032)
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (< 0.001)
l-Serine (< 0.001)
Arginine (< 0.001)
Methionine sulfoxide (< 0.001)
PC(18:1/22:6) (0.012)
PC(20:5/P-16:0) (0.019)
l-Threonine (0.021)
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (0.028)
Armstrong et al. (2015) [26]296Acetate (0.040)
Glutamate (0.029)
Hypoxanthine (0.001)
Lactate (0.006)
Phenylalaine (0.001)
Glucose (0.011)
Armstrong et al. (2012) [18]222Glutamine (0.002)
Ornithine (0.045)
None
Jones et al. (2005) [27]264Taurine (< 0.001)
Histidine (< 0.001)
Tyrosine (< 0.01)
Alpha-amino-n-butyric acid (< 0.05)
None