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Table 1 Molecular biomarkers for PCa management

From: Data-driven translational prostate cancer research: from biomarker discovery to clinical decision

Official symbol Type Function PMID
Genes
 BRCA1, BRCA2 Risk prediction Mutations are associated with high risk of PCa development and aggressiveness 31723001
 ATM Risk prediction Mutations are associated with grade reclassification and aggressive PCa 30309687
 CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51D Risk prediction Germline mutations are associated with mPCa through mediating DNA-repair processes 27433846
 CDK12 Risk prediction Mutations are associated with high-grade PCa and the development of mPCa 31640893
 GBX2 Prognosis The methylation predicts higher risk of biochemical recurrence 31200836
 CDO1 Prognosis The promoter methylation is associated with the biochemical recurrence-free survival of PCa patients 27689475
 MLH1, MSH6, PMS2 Prognosis Up-regulation is associated with tumor aggressiveness and early PSA recurrence 27803051
 TP53 Prognosis Predicting the outcome of mCRPC patients treated with Abiraterone or Enzalutamide 30209161
 PDL1 Prognosis The expression is associated with high PCa risk and the biochemical recurrence of patients following adjuvant hormonal therapy 31289580
 TRIM24 Prognosis The expression is useful for risk stratification and recurrence evaluation 31178279
 RSPO3 Prognosis Lower expression is associated with PCa invasiveness and metastasis 30987640
 CRTC2 Prognosis Lower expression predicts worse pathologic outcomes and postoperative survival 30838340
 TMEM45B Prognosis Over-expression is associated with PCa progression and metastasis 30249106
 AR-V7 Therapy The expression indicates the resistance of mCRPC patients to androgen axis-targeted therapies 31653572
 HMGB1 Therapy Up-regulation promotes PCa development and metastasis through Akt pathway and BRG1-mediated EMT 31410208
miRNAs
 miR-182-5p, miR-375-3p Diagnosis Circulating levels are associated with the advanced pathologic stage and metastasis 31572685
 miR-204-5p Diagnosis Down-regulation predicts bone metastasis and other clinicopathological characteristics 31678733
 miR-1246 Diagnosis Down-regulation predicts PCa aggressiveness and metastasis 29437039
 miR-218-5p Diagnosis Serum down-regulation is associated with bone metastasis of PCa 30870834
 miR-98-5p, miR-152-3p, miR-326, miR-4289 Diagnosis Up-regulation in plasma predicts the occurrence of PCa 30845775
 miR-1207-3p Prognosis Up-regulation predicts a high risk of PCa recurrence and other clinical outcomes 27267842
 miR-34a-5p Prognosis Prediction of response to docetaxel and PCa progression 25053345
 miR-424-3p Therapy Low expression is associated with clinical failure in PCa 31337863
lncRNAs
 PSLNR Diagnosis Inhibiting PCa progression through the p53-dependent pathway 31269242
 PCA3 Diagnosis Modulating the survival of PCa cells via AR signaling, and the urine level is useful for PCa diagnosis 31762940
 HOTTIP Prognosis Over-expression is associated with poor prognosis and clinicopathologic features 31570281
 SNHG12 Prognosis Predicting PCa prognosis and promoting PCa tumorigenesis through sponging miR-133b 31267540
 NAP1L6 Prognosis Over-expression promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion of PCa cells, and indicates larger tumor size, distant metastasis, and shorter survival time 30154665
 TMPO-AS1 Prognosis Over-expression is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis 30105831
 APP Therapy Up-regulation promotes cell migration and invasion via sponging miR-218 to facilitate the expression of ZEB2/CDH2 31107971
 MALAT1 Therapy Up-regulation is associated with proliferation and migration of PCa cells, and the silencing inhibits PCa progression 29942138
circRNAs
 circ_0044516 Diagnosis Promoting cell proliferation and metastasis 31625175
 circFOXO3 Diagnosis Up-regulation is positively correlated with the Gleason score and PCa development 31733095
 circ_001206 Diagnosis Down-regulation is associated with PCa clinical features and the over-expression inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of PCa cells 31198063
 circZMIZ1 Therapy Up-regulation promotes the proliferation of PCa cells 31686520
Metabolites
 Myo-inositol Diagnosis Increased level is associated with the high aggressiveness of PCa 29581441
 Hyperpolarized 13C lactate Diagnosis Increased level predicts the presence and aggressiveness of PCa 23532911
 Spermine, citrate Diagnosis Decreased level is associated with higher aggressiveness of PCa 23626811
 Alanine, lactate Diagnosis Increased level is detected in PCa tissues compared with benign prostate tissues 18727052
 Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase Prognosis Increased level is associated with bone metastases and shorter overall survival of androgen-independent PCa patients 16740758
  1. PCa prostate cancer, mPCa metastatic prostate cancer, mCRPC metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer, EMT epithelial-mesenchymal transition, miRNA microRNA, lncRNA long non-coding RNA, circRNA circular RNA, PMID PubMed ID