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Table 2 The evidence quality for thiazide diuretics reducing the incidence of kidney stones and 24-h urinary calcium level

From: Use of thiazide diuretics for the prevention of recurrent kidney calculi: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Quality assessmentNo of patientsEffectQualityImportance
No of studiesDesignRisk of biasInconsistencyIndirectnessImprecisionOther considerationsUCa of thiazide diureticsPlaceboRelative (95% CI)Absolute
Thiazide diuretics VS placebo in 24-h UCa
 4Randomized trialsNo serious risk of biasNo serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessSeriousaNone145171SMD 18.59 lower (25.11 to 12.08 lower)ModerateImportant
Thiazide diuretics VS placebo in incidence of new kidney stones
 8Randomized trialsNo serious risk of biasSeriousbNo serious indirectnessSeriousaNone52/286 (18.2%)119/285 (41.8%)418 fewer per 1000 (from 418 fewer to 418 fewer)LowCritical
  1. UCa urinary calcium
  2. aThe sample size is not large enough and the event rate is not high enough
  3. bThe outcome of 2 studies is no effect