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Table 3 Meta-analysis results for the prevalence of CFS/ME

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)

Group N. of dataa Random effects model (%) Heterogeneity (P < 0.01, P = 0%)
  Prevalence 95% CI Q T2 I2 (%)
Total 56 0.68 [0.48; 0.97] 8602.90 1.7199 99.4
Sex
 Male 24 0.86 [0.58; 1.27] 279.89 0.6666 91.8
 Female 24 1.36 [0.91; 2.02] 822.64 0.8003 97.2
 Total 48 1.04 [0.76; 1.41] 1481.76 0.9471 96.8
Study participants
 Community 33 0.76 [0.53; 1.10] 3286.47 1.0363 99.0
 Primary care 23 0.63 [0.37; 1.10] 2732.10 1.7745 99.2
Population group
 General population (≥ 18 years)
  Male 23 0.89 [0.60; 1.32] 276.23 0.6607 92.0
  Female 23 1.36 [0.91; 2.04] 818.30 0.8009 97.3
  Total 44 0.65 [0.43; 0.99] 7717.65 1.8518 99.4
  Children/adolescents (< 18 years) 7 0.55 [0.22; 1.35] 538.13 1.4319 98.9
  Specific population 5 1.31 [0.61; 2.78] 80.54 0.6657 95.0
Case definition
 CDC-1994 [22] 34 0.89 [0.60; 1.33] 3871.64 1.3691 99.1
 Holmes [23] 8 0.17 [0.06; 0.49] 101.72 1.8890 93.1
  Australian [25] 4 0.79 [0.05; 12.55] 1002.43 7.8860 99.7
  Oxford [24] 4 1.41 [0.68; 2.93] 35.17 0.4468 91.5
  CCC [27] ECD [26] PVES [28] NICE [29]b 4 0.17 [0.04; 0.83] 1200.67 2.5864 99.8
Diagnostic method
 Interview (medical test −) 22 1.14 [0.76; 1.72] 1675.91 0.8269 98.7
 Interview(medical test +) 23 0.95 [0.69; 1.31] 365.72 0.5208 94.0
 Physician diagnosis 6 0.09 [0.05; 0.13] 200.49 0.2952 97.5
 Medical records 5 0.52 [0.16; 1.71] 1197.28 1.8360 99.7
  1. Refer to supplementary Additional file: Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
  2. aTotal number of prevalence data points
  3. bCCC, Canadian Consensus Criteria; ECD, epidemiological case definition; PVES, post viral exhaustion syndrome; and NICE, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline 2007; two studies with no verification of case definition and defined criteria were excluded