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Table 1 Hemodynamic and pressure–volume characteristics

From: Increasing venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation flow puts higher demands on left ventricular work in a porcine model of chronic heart failure

ParameterUnitsVA ECMO blood flowPRelative change
EBF 0EBF 1EBF 2EBF 3EBF 4EBF 5EBF 0–5 (%)
Ventricular hemodynamics
 LVPPmmHg49 ± 555 ± 1361 ± 1366 ± 1274 ± 10*73 ± 11*0.00149
 EDPmmHg7  ± 28 ± 210 ± 211 ± 313 ± 2*15 ± 3*< 0.001114
 ESVmL139  ± 17143 ± 16148 ± 18152 ± 19164 ± 15*167 ± 15*< 0.00120
 EDVmL189  ± 26194 ± 27203  ± 29209  ± 30217 ± 29*218 ± 30*< 0.00115
 SVmL51 ± 2051 ± 2056 ± 2059 ± 2055 ± 2152 ± 210.032
 EF%25 ± 724 ± 626 ± 727 ± 723 ± 621 ± 60.18− 16
 HRbeats/min101 ± 2296 ± 1993 ± 1790 ± 1390 ± 1486 ± 140.34− 15
 SWmmHg*mL1434 ± 9411595 ± 9871867 ± 11022014 ± 10622105 ± 1060*1892 ± 10360.0432
 dP/dtmax/EDVmmHg/s/mL2.2 ± 0.82.2 ± 0.62.4 ± 0.42.5  ± 0.42.8 ± 0.63 ± 0.90.9436
Perfusion parameters
 Carotid flowmL/min211 ± 72291 ± 62314  ± 57356  ± 57447  ± 64*479 ± 58*< 0.001127
 Subclavian flowmL/min103 ± 49128 ± 44158 ± 40208 ± 47266 ± 47*296 ± 54*< 0.001187
 Cranial rSO2%57 ± 660 ± 467 ± 569 ± 572 ± 4*74 ± 3*< 0.00130
 Forelimb rSO2%37 ± 646 ± 558 ± 567 ± 672 ± 7*77 ± 6*< 0.001108
 SvO2%62 ± 877 ± 381 ± 386 ± 489 ± 4*89 ± 4*< 0.00144
 CVPmmHg14 ± 211 ± 210 ± 28 ± 2*9 ± 2*8 ± 2*0.001− 43
  1. For each step of increasing extracorporeal blood flow (EBF in L/min), hemodynamic values are expressed as mean ± SEM
  2. LV left ventricle, LVPP LV peak pressure, EDP LV end-diastolic pressure, ESV LV end-systolic volume, EDV LV end-diastolic volume, SV stroke volume, EF LV ejection fraction, HR heart rate, SW LV Stroke work, dP/dtmax/EDV maximal time derivative of LV pressure change normalized to EDV, SvO2 mixed venous oxygen saturation, CVP central venous pressure
  3. Values significantly different from EBF 0 are marked with *
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