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Table 1 The structure of human skin and their functions

From: Regeneration of skin appendages and nerves: current status and further challenges

 MelanocytesStratum basaleProduction of melanosomes[2]
 Merkel cellsStratum basaleSensor[2]
 KeratinocytesStratum corneum
Basement membrane
Secrete lipids, protease inhibitors, hydrolases, and antimicrobial peptides[1, 2]
 Langerhans cellsStratum spinosumServing an immunologic role[2]
Dermoepidermal junctionEpidermal and dermal layersRegulates adhesion, movement, and growth of keratinocytes and fibroblasts4
Provides structural support for epidermis
 VasculatureSuperficial plexus: papillary and reticular dermis
Deep plexus: reticular dermis and hypodermis
Supply oxygen and nutrients to skin 
 Arrector pili muscleAttach to the hair follicle below the sebaceous glandsPull the hair follicle[2]
 Arteries smooth muscleArterial wallPerfusion blood 
 Skeletal muscleFace and anterolateral neckFacilitate facial expression 
 NervesAlong arterioles and venulesTouch, pressure, temperature, itch, and pain sensation[106]
Skin appendages
 Hair FollicleDermal layer of the skinForm physical barrier, antibacterial, inhibit scar formation[28]
 Eccrine sweat glandsPalms and solesRegulate body temperature[61]
 Apocrine sweat glandsAxillary and anogenital regionsCause the characteristic smell of body[61]
 Sebaceous glandsHair follicle and the arrector pili muscleSecrete sebum and lubricate, protect against microorganisms[78,79,80]
HypodermisBeneath the dermis and above the muscleInsulate from the cold and violent trauma, provides buoyancy, storing energy[2]