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Table 3 Worldwide Parkinson’s disease cohorts and IGF-1 levels

From: Is insulin-like growth factor-1 involved in Parkinson’s disease development?

PatientsnAge (SD)SexTreatmentUPDRS-III stage (SD)DesignResultsPeripheral blood IGF-1 (ng/ml) PD baseline/controls (SD)References
Early (< 3.5 years) vs. moderate (> 4 years) PD3764 (7)15F/22MLevodopa22 (9) (early)/38 (15) (moderate)Longitudinal prospective cohort (3.5 years)aPD patients in moderate, but not early stages, showed significantly increased baseline IGF-1 levels.130 (26)/106 (24) p = 0.017Bernhard et al. [171]
Newly diagnosed idiopathic PD (Germany)1569 (8.3)6F/9MDrug-naïve14.30 (5.3)Cross-sectional cohortaIGF-1 level was higher in patients with PD and inversely correlated with the UPDRS-III score (r = − 0.77) among PD patients
IGFBP-3 unchanged
IGF-1 level was not related to motor function in the healthy group
158.4 (40.4)/129.2 (29.1) p = 0.004Godau et al. [172]
Idiopathic PD (Germany)1867 (9)8F/22MLevodopa-treated vs. untreated24.1 (8.5) (treated)/16.2 (4.1) (untreated)Longitudinal (6 months)aIGF-1 was significantly higher in treated PD patients than in controls at all time points (all p < 0.001)
IGF-1 levels were correlated with shorter disease duration (r = 0.56, p < 0.001)
In the patient group, higher IGF-1 levels were correlated with shorter disease duration (r1⁄4 0.56, p1⁄40.001)
In the healthy control group, higher IGF-1 levels were correlated with slightly impaired motor performance (r1⁄40.46, p1⁄40.005)
In the untreated patient group, IGF-1 levels were significantly higher than healthy controls (p < 0.001)
Treatment did not alter GH
149.06 (30.3)/98.96 (23.2)Godau et al. [173]
PD3868 (10)F and MCross-sectional cohortaSerum and CSF IGF-1 and IGFBP levels were higher in PD patients than controls (p < 0.001)CSF: 5.97 pg/mL (0.93)/4.40 pg/mL (0.58)
Serum: 320.19 (40.86)/207.97 (19.51)
Mashayekhi et al. [174]
PD (75), multiple system atrophy (MSA, 25), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, 16) (Japan)11668.1 (1.1)44F/35MDrug-naïve vs. levodopa-treated26.9 (1.8)Cross-sectional cohortaSerum IGF-1 levels tended to be higher in early PD patients than controls
There was a negative correlation between serum IGF-1 levels and age in PD patients and controls
There was no significant correlation between disease duration and serum IGF-1 levels in PD patients
In controls, there was no significant correlation between serum IGF-1 levels and UPDRS part III
In PD and PSP patients, there was a negative correlation between serum IGF-1 levels and UPDRS part III. In early and drug naïve PD patients there was no significant correlation between serum IGF-1 levels and UPDRS part III
IGF-1 serum levels in PD patients with HY stage 2 were significantly higher than those in PD patients with HY stages 3–5
130.3 (14.6)/114.4 (5.9)Numao et al. [175]
> 3years PD with weight loss (11) vs. PD without weight loss (16)2763.5 (8.8)/60.5 (8.6)6F, 5M/8F, 8MLevodopa43.45 (17.26)/37.75 (22.17)Cross-sectional cohortaBMI was lower in all PD patients
Serum leptin levels were lower in all PD patients
Serum GH and IGF-1 levels were higher in all PD patients, mostly in PD with weight loss and without weight loss, respectively
Serum active ghrelin levels were positively correlated with serum IGF-1 levels in the control group (p < 0.05; r = 0.67) but not among PD patients
With weight loss 191.73 (33.84), without weight loss 152.19 (49.62)/144.17 (24.24) (p < 0.05 between PD patients and PD patients with weight loss vs. controls)Fiszer et al. [176]
PD2567.9 (9.4)5F/20MTreated, drug not specifiedCross-sectional cohortaIGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels in PD patients showed no correlation with the duration and severity of the disease132 (42)/113 (51)Tuncel et al. [177]
Early PD (< 2 years) (Italy)6559.7 (8.3)26F/39MDrug-naïve14.5 (6.7)2-year follow-up prospective cohortaAt baseline, serum IGF-1 levels were significantly increased as compared to healthy controls
A positive correlation between IGF-1 levels and a specific executive function (phonological fluency) assessing cognitive flexibility was found
After a 2-year follow-up, IGF-1 levels were positively related to verbal episodic memory, visuoperceptual abilities and attention/executive functions
Low IGF-1 levels at baseline were independently associated to poor performance on specific cognitive tasks assessing verbal episodic memory and executive functions after 2 years
91.6 (34.4)/79.1 (23) (p = 0.019)Pellecchia et al. [178]
Early PD (< 2 years) (Italy)3759.4 (9)15F/22MDrug-naïve14.6 (7.1)12-month follow-up prospective cohortaAt baseline, serum IGF-1 levels were moderately increased
Patients at the highest IGF-1 quartile presented higher mean dopaminergic scores (worse outcome)
94.5 (37.5)/79.1 (23) (p < 0.011)Picillo et al. [179]
Early PD (< 2 years)40561.20 (9.7)141F/264MDrug-naïve20.25 (8.93)5-year follow-up prospective cohortaIGF-1 levels were similar in PD and controls
Lower serum IGF-1 levels were associated to poor performances in cognitive tasks assessing executive function, attention and verbal memory
136.6 (56.1)/134.45 (56.13)Picillo et al. [180]
Meta-analysis covering de novo, drug-naïve idiopathic PD patients166Drug-naïveSignificantly higher serum IGF-1 levels among de novo, drug-naïve idiopathic PD patients at baseline Li et al. [181]
  1. HY Hoehn and Yahr score, MDS-UPDRS-III Movement Disease Society-modified UPDRS-III scale, SD standard deviation, UPDRS-III unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale
  2. aAge, sex and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), as well as the presence or absence of other medical factors known to affect IGF-1 levels, termed medical confounders: diabetes mellitus (reported in medical history or inferred by antidiabetic medication intake), beta-adrenergic medication, depression (and/or antidepressant medication), neuroleptic medication, thyroid dysfunction, inflammatory diseases and cancer. All of them were taken into account when the study was carried out