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Table 1 Alterations of microbiome in healthy smokers

From: Smoking and microbiome in oral, airway, gut and some systemic diseases

  Reference Origin Sample Enriched microbes Depleted microbes
Oral [37] Human Subgingival plaque Species: Fusobacterium nucleatum, F. naviforme, Filifactor alocis, Dialister microaerophilus, Desulfobulbus sp. clone R004, Megasphaera sueciensis, M. geminatus, M. elsdenii, M. micronuciformis, Acinetobacter johnsonii, A. guillouiae, A. schindleri, A. baumannii, A. haemolyticus, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus Species: Streptococcus sanguinis, S. parasanguinis, S. oralis, Granulicatella elegans, G. adiacens, Actinomyces viscosus, A. israelii, A. dentalis, Neisseria subflava, Hemophilus parainfluenzae
[191] Human Oral wash samples Genera: Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus  
[192] Human Mouth wash sample Phylum: Spirochaetes, Synergistetes and Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria
Genera: Treponema, TG5 and Mycoplasma, Megasphaera, Dialister, Paludibacter, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Atopobium
Phylum: Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, SR1, GN02 and Cyanobacteria
Genera: Neisseria, Eikenella, Aggregatibacter, Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, Lautropia, Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia
Airway [193] Human Nasopharyngeal swab, oropharyngeal swabs Oropharynx
Genera: Megasphaera, Veillonella spp.
Nasopharynx
Genera: Eggerthella, Erysipelotrichaceae I.S., Dorea, Anaerovorax, Eubacterium spp.
Oropharynx
Genera: Capnocytophaga, Fusobacterium, Neisseria spp.
Nasopharynx
Genera: Shigella spp.
[194] Mice Lung sample Genera: Trichococcus, EscherichiaShigella, Oxalobacteraceae Genera: Oceanospirillales, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillaceae, Enterobacter, Acidimicrobiales_norank, Caulobacteraceae_ Phyllobacteriaceae_uncultured, Raoultella, Caulobacteraceae_unclassified
[88] Human BALF Virome: Prevotella, Xanthomonas, Actinomyces, Aeromonas, Capnocytophaga, Haemophilus and Rhodoferax phages Virome: Lactobacillus, Gardnerella phages, Enhydrobacter, Enterobacter, Holospora, Morganella, Enhydrobacter, and Spiroplasma phages
Gut [124] Rat Caecal contents Not reported Genera: Bifidobacterium sp.
[125] Mice Caecal contents Genera: Clostridium sp. Genera: Lactococcus sp., Ruminococcus sp., Enterobacteriaceae sp. and segmented filamentous bacteria
[175] Mice Colonic sample Genera: Lachnospiraceae sp. Not reported