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Table 1 General characteristics of the sample grouped by birth weight and type of infant feeding

From: Blood cell transcript levels in 5-year-old children as potential markers of breastfeeding effects in those small for gestational age at birth

Variable (mean ± SD) AGA (n = 21) SGA (n = 19) ANOVA
BF (n = 8) FF (n = 13) BF (n = 10) FF (n = 9)
Subjects (total%) 20.0 32.5 25.0 22.5  
Sex m/f 5/3 8/5 3/7 5/4  
At birth
 Weight (g) 3439 ± 236 3335 ± 330 2390 ± 248w 2401 ± 225w W (P < 0.001)
 Height (cm) 51.0 ± 2.5 50.0 ± 2.0 46.0 ± 1.2w 46.5 ± 2.2bw W (P < 0.001)
 SBP (mmHg) 78 ± 9 69 ± 8f 66 ± 10bw 68 ± 10 W (P = 0.041)
 DBP (mmHg) 45 ± 7 42 ± 9 40 ± 10 37 ± 8 ns
 HR (bpm) 124 ± 8 126 ± 19 122 ± 21 129 ± 14 ns
At 5 year old (mean age) 4.7 ± 0.7 5.2 ± 0.6 5.2 ± 0.9 5.1 ± 0.6 ns
 Weight (kg) 23.0 ± 6.2 21.3 ± 4.2 20.0 ± 3.4 20.2 ± 3.2 ns
 Height (cm) 112 ± 9 112 ± 6 110 ± 5 112 ± 5 ns
 BMI (kg/m2) 18.0 ± 2.3 16.9 ± 3.0 16.4 ± 2.2 15.9 ± 1.8 ns
 BMI percentile 86 ± 14 65 ± 35 64 ± 33w 58 ± 27 ns
 BMI-Z score 1.59 ± 1.12 0.86 ± 1.86 0.65 ± 1.28w 0.36 ± 1.02 ns
 SBP (mmHg) 97 ± 5 91 ± 7 96 ± 7 95 ± 10 ns
 DBP (mmHg) 53 ± 5 54 ± 5 58 ± 4 56 ± 11 ns
 HR (bpm) 96 ± 6 88 ± 29 99 ± 13 95 ± 8 ns
 Glucose (mg/dL) 83 ± 5 81 ± 5 81 ± 6 76 ± 12 ns
 Uric acid (mg/dL) 4.05 ± 0.89 3.20 ± 0.67f 3.60 ± 0.57 3.90 ± 1.02w W*F (P = 0.028)
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.30 ± 0.40 0.33 ± 0.06 0.34 ± 0.08 0.33 ± 0.05 ns
 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 73 ± 18 59 ± 14 74 ± 47 60 ± 6 ns
 Total cholest. (mg/dL) 166 ± 28 174 ± 20 170 ± 33 162 ± 23 ns
 HDL cholest. (mg/dL) 46 ± 8 59 ± 11f 60 ± 16w 51 ± 9 W*F (P = 0.006)
 LDL cholest. (mg/dL) 106 ± 26 104 ± 20 96 ± 27 102 ± 18 ns
 Insulin (µIU/mL) 5.88 ± 1.68 4.24 ± 2.25 6.75 ± 3.71 4.06 ± 2.25 F (P = 0.017)
 HOMA-index 1.21 ± 0.39 0.85 ± 0.47 1.31 ± 0.66 0.78 ± 0.44 F (P = 0.012)
  1. Results are mean ± standard deviation (SD). Statistical analysis: W: effect of birth weight; F: effect of the type of infant feeding; W*F: interactive effect between birth weight and type of infant feeding (P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA). f represents differences between FF and BF within the same group of birth weight; w represents differences between AGA and SGA within the same group of infant feeding (P < 0.05, Student’s t test)
  2. AGA, appropriate for gestational age; SGA, small for gestational age; BF, breastfed; FF, formula fed; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HR, heart rate; BMI, body mass index; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment; ns, not-significant
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