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Table 1 Serum and urine parameters

From: Acute canagliflozin treatment protects against in vivo myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury in non-diabetic male rats and enhances endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation

Parameters Sham + vehicle Sham + canagliflozin IRI + vehicle IRI + canagliflozin
Serum glucose (mg/dL) 215 ± 15 193 ± 10 205 ± 13 226 ± 17
Urine glucose (mmol/L) 0.54 ± 0.06 0.49 ± 0.06 0.44 ± 0.06 0.52 ± 0.04
Serum creatine kinase (IU/L) 1778 ± 247 1806 ± 346 3445 ± 436* 3089 ± 477
Serum lactate dehydrogenase (IU/L) 961 ± 81 789 ± 41 3279 ± 259* 2716 ± 242*
Serum aspartate transaminase (IU/L) 217 ± 23 191 ± 10 899 ± 119* 745 ± 91*
Serum alanine transaminase (IU/L) 63 ± 4 57 ± 5 131 ± 11* 114 ± 12*
Alkaline phosphatase (IU/L) 268 ± 10 277 ± 13 273 ± 13 304 ± 15
Cholesterol (mg/dL) 79 ± 4 82 ± 4 78 ± 4 77 ± 2
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.47 ± 0.05 0.42 ± 0.02 0.58 ± 0.08 0.55 ± 0.05
Urinary urea nitrogen (g/dL) 27 ± 5 26 ± 3 21 ± 4 20 ± 2
Urinary creatinine (mg/dL) 103 ± 9 115 ± 11 116 ± 12 99 ± 8
Urinary albumin (mg/L) 16 ± 3 13 ± 6 16 ± 4 15 ± 3
  1. Canagliflozin did not alter serum and urine glucose levels in non-diabetic rats, and was not associated with hepatic or renal injury
  2. To investigate intergroup differences, Tukey’s post hoc test was performed following two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). *P < 0.05 versus sham + vehicle; IRI ischemia–reperfusion injury