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Table 3 Multivariate logistic regression analysis of risk factors for DED

From: Air Pollutants are associated with Dry Eye Disease in Urban Ophthalmic Outpatients: a Prevalence Study in China

Characteristics β OR 95% CI Wald χ2 P value
Gender
 Male Ref Ref
 Female 0.4079 1.504 (1.421, 1.592) 197.6858 < 0.0001
Age (years old)
 < 25 Ref Ref
 25–45 0.4540 1.575 (1.462, 1.696) 143.6879 < 0.0001
 > 45 0.9010 2.462 (2.267, 2.675) 453.8747 < 0.0001
Keratorefractive surgery
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.5449 1.724 (1.588, 1.874) 166.8826 < 0.0001
Arthritis
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.5060 1.659 (1.483, 1.857) 77.8043 < 0.0001
Thyroid diseases
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.2502 1.284 (1.139, 1.449) 16.6104 < 0.0001
Antihistamine
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.4004 1.492 (1.321, 1.689) 40.9029 < 0.0001
OC
 No Ref Ref
 Yes − 0.3023 0.739 (0.632, 0.865) 14.3181 0.0002
Diuretics
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.2087 1.232 (1.061, 1.433) 7.4087 0.0065
DU drugs
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.5263 1.693 (1.372, 2.101) 23.4873 < 0.0001
Diazepam
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.4334 1.542 (1.289, 1.855) 21.7865 < 0.0001
CO (days)*
 < 124 Ref Ref
 ≥ 124 − 0.7163 0.489 (0.424, 0.563) 97.1635 < 0.0001
NO2 (days)*      
 < 150 Ref Ref
 ≥ 150 − 0.1010 0904 (0.834, 0.980) 5.9988 0.0143
O3 (days)*
 < 125 Ref Ref
 ≥ 125 1.3777 3.966 (3.666, 4.293) 1171.6734 < 0.0001
PM2.5 (days)*
 < 143 Ref Ref
 ≥ 143 0.6971 2.008 (1.789, 2.255) 139.8619 < 0.0001
SO2 (days)*
 < 101 Ref Ref
 ≥ 101 0.4941 1.639 (1.503, 1.788) 123.9515 < 0.0001
  1. Factors controlled: relative humidity, mean air pressure, and air temperature
  2. * The number of days in which the pollutant concentration exceeds “extreme value”