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Table 1 Role of WISP1 in human cancers

From: The emerging role of WISP proteins in tumorigenesis and cancer therapy

Cancer type Function Target Reference
Breast cancer Increases cell proliferation, migration and invasion; promotes tumor growth; induces EMT; promotes type 2 cell-mediated immunity; inhibits type 1 cell mediated immunity; suppresses tumor metastasis Inhibits E-cadherin, NDRG1; increases N-cadherin, Snail, and β-catenin [4, 6,7,8,9,10, 102]
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Promotes cell growth; Inhibits WISP1; suppresses cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion; associated with invasion, pTNM stage, and patient survival Induced by Wnt/β-catenin pathway; activates pAkt, GSK-3β, and MMP-2 [35,36,37,38]
Colon cancer Promotes tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis; associated with advanced pathological stage and poor prognosis; harbors loss of expression, frameshifts and mutations Induced by DHX32, Wnt pathway [2, 45,46,47,48]
Gastric cancer Promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion Activates cyclin D1 [50]
Pancreatic cancer Promotes malignant transformation Inhibited by BRCA2 [55]
Lung cancer Retards cell motility and invasion; promotes cancer progression; correlated to tumor histology; correlated to chemotherapeutic toxicity; leads to pulmonary metastases Increased by S100A4 [59,60,61,62,63,64]
Melanoma Promotes pulmonary metastases; suppresses cell growth Increased by Notch1 [64, 68,69,70]
Prostate cancer Promotes cancer progression, migration, growth; associated with cancer stage; enhances cell adherence to bone Increases VCAM-1; inhibits miR-126 [72,73,74]
Oral carcinoma Promotes cell migration; correlated with the tumor stage and poor survival; enhances angiogenesis Enhances ICAM-1, VEGF-A and VEGF-C; activates integrin αvβ3/FAK/c-Src and EGFR/ERK/HIF-1α pathways; inhibits miR-300 [75,76,77,78,79,80,81]
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma Enhances cell growth; associated with tumor size, tumor type, lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis; contributes to radioresistance Not detecte [83,84,85,86]
Osteosarcoma Enhances bone cell differentiation and formation; associated with tumor stage; promotes cancer cell migration and tube formation Enhances BMP-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9; improves VEGF-A; inhibits miR-381 [87,88,89,90,91]
Chondrosarcoma Promotes cell migration Upregulates MMP-2 [92,93,94]
Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma Associated with poor survival and clinical grades Not detected [97]