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Table 3 Subgroup meta-analysis of the effects of inulin-type fructans on glycemic indicators (FBG, HbA1c, FINS and HOMA-IR)

From: Inulin-type fructans supplementation improves glycemic control for the prediabetes and type 2 diabetes populations: results from a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trials

Subgroups Fasting blood glucose (mmol/l) HbA1c (%) FINS (μU/ml) HOMA-IR
n WMD (95% CI) Pa I2 (%) Pb n WMD (95% CI) Pa I2 (%) Pb n WMD (95% CI) Pa I2 (%) Pb n WMD (95% CI) Pa I2 (%) Pb
Sex
 Male 4 − 0.15 (− 0.32, 0.03) 0.106 0.0 0.599 2 − 0.18 (− 0.41, 0.05) 0.120 0.0 0.599 4 0.90 (0.30, 1.51) 0.004 71.2 < 0.001 3 − 0.09 (− 0.83, 0.66) 0.819 40.9 0.184
 Female 6 − 0.51 (− 0.87, − 0.16) 0.004 81.7 < 0.001 5 − 0.56 (− 0.97, − 0.15) 0.008 72.3 0.006 4 − 0.37 (− 5.70, − 1.86) < 0.001 47.7 0.125 3 − 1.84 (− 2.72, − 0.97) < 0.001 56.9 0.098
ITF type
 Inulin 12 − 0.28 (− 0.51, − 0.06) 0.012 74.5 < 0.001 7 − 0.48 (− 0.85, − 0.12) 0.010 47.6 0.076 11 − 1.20 (− 2.14, − 0.27) 0.012 84.5 < 0.001 10 − 0.63 (− 0.94, − 0.31) < 0.001 76.9 < 0.001
 Other kinds 21 − 0.15 (− 0.27, − 0.03) 0.011 25.3 0.142 5 − 0.28 (− 0.71, 0.14) 0.193 61.5 0.035 15 − 1.32 (− 2.07, − 0.56) 0.001 0.0 0.754 8 − 0.42 (− 0.92, 0.09) 0.108 18.9 0.281
Food based
 ITF in drink 25 − 0.24 (− 0.39, − 0.09) 0.002 66.9 < 0.001 11 − 0.42 (− 0.74, − 0.11) 0.008 52.2 0.022 20 − 1.38 (− 2.06, − 0.70) < 0.001 61.1 < 0.001 14 − 0.58 (− 0.87, − 0.28) < 0.001 70.4 < 0.001
 Others 8 − 0.12 (− 0.26, 0.03) 0.114 0.0 0.945 1 − 0.20 (− 0.44, 0.04) 0.101 ~ ~ 6 − 0.28 (− 2.08, 1.51) 0.757 46.4 0.097 4 − 0.62 (− 1.27, 0.04) 0.067 9.2 0.347
Intervention type
 ITF vs non-ITF 29 − 0.22 (− 0.35, − 0.10) 0.001 60.5 < 0.001 12 − 0.39 (− 0.65, − 0.13) 0.004 51.2 0.020 23 − 1.08 (− 1.81, − 0.36) 0.003 69.4 < 0.001 15 − 0.53 (− 0.81, − 0.25) < 0.001 68.7 < 0.001
 Synbiotics vs. probiotic 4 0.01 (− 0.21, 0.23) 0.944 0.0 0.697       3 − 2.10 (− 3.80, − 0.39) 0.016 34.5 0.217 3 − 1.16 (− 2.02, − 0.29) 0.009 0.0 0.928
Study design
 Parallel 24 − 0.23 (− 0.39, − 0.08) 0.003 68.9 < 0.001 10 − 0.45 (− 0.77, − 0.13) 0.006 55.4 0.017 19 − 1.48 (− 2.25, − 0.71) < 0.001 63.2 < 0.001 15 − 0.58 (− 0.89, − 0.28) < 0.001 69.5 < 0.001
 Cross-over 9 − 0.15 (− 0.30, − 0.01) 0.038 0.0 0.962 2 − 0.19 (− 0.42, 0.05) 0.117 0.0 0.590 7 − 0.32 (− 1.57, 0.92) 0.612 62.7 0.013 3 − 0.63 (− 1.07, − 0.19) 0.005 0.0 0.629
Country of study
 Iran 11 − 0.59 (− 0.83, − 0.35) < 0.001 31.1 0.151 7 − 0.75 (− 1.00, − 0.50) < 0.001 0.0 0.919 9 − 1.95 (− 3.18, − 0.73) 0.002 80.4 < 0.001 8 − 0.82 (− 1.30, − 0.34) 0.001 82.1 < 0.001
 Other countries 22 − 0.10 (− 0.22, 0.02) 0.116 58.8 < 0.001 5 − 0.08 (− 0.27, 0.11) 0.399 0.0 0.586 17 − 0.76 (− 1.56, 0.04) 0.062 52.8 0.006 10 − 0.48 (− 0.66, − 0.29) < 0.001 0.0 0.523
Sponsor referred
 No 25 − 0.27 (− 0.41, − 0.13) < 0.001 60.0 < 0.001 11 − 0.42 (− 0.70, − 0.15) 0.003 54.0 0.017 20 − 1.32 (− 2.10, − 0.55) 0.001 74.0 < 0.001 13 − 0.63 (− 0.92, − 0.34) < 0.001 70.2 < 0.001
 Yes 8 − 0.01 (− 0.14, 0.13) 0.920 0.0 0.791 1 0.00 (− 0.71, 0.71) 1.000 ~ ~ 6 − 1.01 (− 2.19, 0.17) 0.093 7.9 0.366 5 − 0.30 (− 1.04, 0.44) 0.422 37.8 0.169
  1. FBG fasting blood glucose, FINS fasting insulin, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, ITF inulin-type fructans, WMD weighted mean difference
  2. aP value for subgroup differences between groups
  3. bP value for heterogeneity within each subgroup