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Table 3 Subgroup meta-analysis of the effects of inulin-type fructans on glycemic indicators (FBG, HbA1c, FINS and HOMA-IR)

From: Inulin-type fructans supplementation improves glycemic control for the prediabetes and type 2 diabetes populations: results from a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trials

SubgroupsFasting blood glucose (mmol/l)HbA1c (%)FINS (μU/ml)HOMA-IR
nWMD (95% CI)PaI2 (%)PbnWMD (95% CI)PaI2 (%)PbnWMD (95% CI)PaI2 (%)PbnWMD (95% CI)PaI2 (%)Pb
Sex
 Male4− 0.15 (− 0.32, 0.03)0.1060.00.5992− 0.18 (− 0.41, 0.05)0.1200.00.59940.90 (0.30, 1.51)0.00471.2< 0.0013− 0.09 (− 0.83, 0.66)0.81940.90.184
 Female6− 0.51 (− 0.87, − 0.16)0.00481.7< 0.0015− 0.56 (− 0.97, − 0.15)0.00872.30.0064− 0.37 (− 5.70, − 1.86)< 0.00147.70.1253− 1.84 (− 2.72, − 0.97)< 0.00156.90.098
ITF type
 Inulin12− 0.28 (− 0.51, − 0.06)0.01274.5< 0.0017− 0.48 (− 0.85, − 0.12)0.01047.60.07611− 1.20 (− 2.14, − 0.27)0.01284.5< 0.00110− 0.63 (− 0.94, − 0.31)< 0.00176.9< 0.001
 Other kinds21− 0.15 (− 0.27, − 0.03)0.01125.30.1425− 0.28 (− 0.71, 0.14)0.19361.50.03515− 1.32 (− 2.07, − 0.56)0.0010.00.7548− 0.42 (− 0.92, 0.09)0.10818.90.281
Food based
 ITF in drink25− 0.24 (− 0.39, − 0.09)0.00266.9< 0.00111− 0.42 (− 0.74, − 0.11)0.00852.20.02220− 1.38 (− 2.06, − 0.70)< 0.00161.1< 0.00114− 0.58 (− 0.87, − 0.28)< 0.00170.4< 0.001
 Others8− 0.12 (− 0.26, 0.03)0.1140.00.9451− 0.20 (− 0.44, 0.04)0.101~~6− 0.28 (− 2.08, 1.51)0.75746.40.0974− 0.62 (− 1.27, 0.04)0.0679.20.347
Intervention type
 ITF vs non-ITF29− 0.22 (− 0.35, − 0.10)0.00160.5< 0.00112− 0.39 (− 0.65, − 0.13)0.00451.20.02023− 1.08 (− 1.81, − 0.36)0.00369.4< 0.00115− 0.53 (− 0.81, − 0.25)< 0.00168.7< 0.001
 Synbiotics vs. probiotic40.01 (− 0.21, 0.23)0.9440.00.697     3− 2.10 (− 3.80, − 0.39)0.01634.50.2173− 1.16 (− 2.02, − 0.29)0.0090.00.928
Study design
 Parallel24− 0.23 (− 0.39, − 0.08)0.00368.9< 0.00110− 0.45 (− 0.77, − 0.13)0.00655.40.01719− 1.48 (− 2.25, − 0.71)< 0.00163.2< 0.00115− 0.58 (− 0.89, − 0.28)< 0.00169.5< 0.001
 Cross-over9− 0.15 (− 0.30, − 0.01)0.0380.00.9622− 0.19 (− 0.42, 0.05)0.1170.00.5907− 0.32 (− 1.57, 0.92)0.61262.70.0133− 0.63 (− 1.07, − 0.19)0.0050.00.629
Country of study
 Iran11− 0.59 (− 0.83, − 0.35)< 0.00131.10.1517− 0.75 (− 1.00, − 0.50)< 0.0010.00.9199− 1.95 (− 3.18, − 0.73)0.00280.4< 0.0018− 0.82 (− 1.30, − 0.34)0.00182.1< 0.001
 Other countries22− 0.10 (− 0.22, 0.02)0.11658.8< 0.0015− 0.08 (− 0.27, 0.11)0.3990.00.58617− 0.76 (− 1.56, 0.04)0.06252.80.00610− 0.48 (− 0.66, − 0.29)< 0.0010.00.523
Sponsor referred
 No25− 0.27 (− 0.41, − 0.13)< 0.00160.0< 0.00111− 0.42 (− 0.70, − 0.15)0.00354.00.01720− 1.32 (− 2.10, − 0.55)0.00174.0< 0.00113− 0.63 (− 0.92, − 0.34)< 0.00170.2< 0.001
 Yes8− 0.01 (− 0.14, 0.13)0.9200.00.79110.00 (− 0.71, 0.71)1.000~~6− 1.01 (− 2.19, 0.17)0.0937.90.3665− 0.30 (− 1.04, 0.44)0.42237.80.169
  1. FBG fasting blood glucose, FINS fasting insulin, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, ITF inulin-type fructans, WMD weighted mean difference
  2. aP value for subgroup differences between groups
  3. bP value for heterogeneity within each subgroup