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Table 2 GRADE profile of ITF supplementation for FBG, HbA1c, and FINS levels and HOMA-IR scores in the total population and in the prediabetes and T2DM population

From: Inulin-type fructans supplementation improves glycemic control for the prediabetes and type 2 diabetes populations: results from a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trials

Quality assessment Summary of findings Quality of evidence
Outcomes Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Publication Bias Number of intervention/control Absolute effect (95% CI) Relative effecta intervention/control
FBG (Total population) No serious limitations Serious limitationsb No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations 656/651 − 0.21 (− 0.33, − 0.09) mmol/l − 4.32%/0.36% moderate
HbA1C (Total population) No serious limitations Serious limitationsc No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations 220/219 − 0.39 (− 0.65, − 0.13) % − 4.93%/1.20% moderate
FINS (Total population) No serious limitations Very serious limitationsd No serious limitations No serious limitations Strongly suspectede 515/514 − 1.22 (− 1.90, − 0.54) μU/ml − 12.62%/0.44% very low
HOMA-IR (Total population) No serious limitations Very serious imitationsf No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations 357/360 − 0.57 (− 0.84, − 0.31) − 19.10%/− 1.27% low
FBG (T2DM and prediabetes) No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations 283/280 − 0.60 (− 0.71, − 0.48) mmol/l − 7.41%/− 0.26%  high
HbA1C (T2DM and prediabetes) No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations 190/189 − 0.58 (− 0.83, − 0.32) % − 5.15%/1.55%  high
FINS (T2DM and prediabetes) No serious limitations Very serious limitationsg No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations 232/229 − 1.75 (-2.87, − 0.63) μU/ml − 20.08%/− 3.50% low
HOMA-IR (T2DM and prediabetes) No serious limitations Very serious limitationsh No serious limitations No serious limitations No serious limitations 195/197 − 0.69 (− 1.10, − 0.28) − 27.63%/− 2.29% low
  1. FBG fasting blood glucose, FINS fasting insulin, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment- insulin resistance, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus
  2. aThe relative effect is computed by calculating the weighted mean of the baseline and hypoglycemic effects
  3. bThe test for heterogeneity is significant, and the I2 is moderate, 59%
  4. cThe test for heterogeneity is significant, and the I2 is moderate, 51%
  5. dThe test for heterogeneity is significant, and the I2 represent substantial heterogeneity, 69%
  6. eThe Egger’s test for publication bias is significant (P = 0.0035)
  7. fThe test for heterogeneity is significant, and the I2 represent substantial heterogeneity, 64%
  8. gThe test for heterogeneity is significant, and the I2 represent substantial heterogeneity, 78%
  9. hThe test for heterogeneity is significant, and the I2 represent substantial heterogeneity, 81%