Skip to main content


Fig. 9 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 9

From: Exosomes of pasteurized milk: potential pathogens of Western diseases

Fig. 9

Dairy milk exosomes and pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Milk exosomes preferentially accumulate in the brain. Milk exosome-derived suppression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) reduces SNCA promoter methylation resulting in increased expression of α-synuclein. α-Synuclein promotes nuclear extrusion of DNMT1. Aggregates of α-synuclein induce neuroinflammation and increase tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-mediated upregulation of miR-155, which further enhances neuroinflammation. Milk exosomes via binding of α-synuclein to exosome membrane lipids may promote the spread of neurotoxic α-synuclein in the brain. Suppression of miR-155 attenuated α-synuclein-induced neuroinflammation in models of Parkinson’s disease

Back to article page