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Fig. 15 | Journal of Translational Medicine

Fig. 15

From: Exosomes of pasteurized milk: potential pathogens of Western diseases

Fig. 15

Hypothesized increase in dairy milk exosomal miR content by genetic selection and persistent pregnancy of dairy cows. MIR148A is a domestication gene of dairy cows increasing milk yield. Estrogens, which are upregulated in pregnant dairy cows, stimulated the expression of miR-148a and miR-21, which attenuate the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Various lipogenesis-inducing genes such as sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 (SREBF1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and estrogen receptor-α (ERα). Procedures that increase dairy cow lactation performance are associated with an upregulation of lactation-promoting miRs, which may enter the human food chain in higher amounts

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